Category Archives: RUSSIA

“And how, without swearing?”

Swear in Russia it’s considered impolite, but imagine the person who did not use swear words in everyday life quite difficult. However, few people wondered why some words become forbidden once and what is actually bad about them. “the” recorded the lecture of candidate of Philology, scientific employee of the Department of Philology MSU Irina Kachin, in which she explains how eroticism penetrated into the Russian language, why swearing particularly considered indecent in the performance of women and what mystery lies in the phrase “[**] your mother”.

In popular culture all that is connected with a solid bottom, can get a direct name, but subject to shifts and so-called effeminacy. A euphemism is a word-by Deputy, it is used instead of some other word that is for some reason inconvenient to say, sometimes for political, sometimes for ethical reasons.

for example, for years I didn’t even know what it was, when in the North, where I mainly work, said “it’s yourself” or “shirt for yourself to wear.” It turned out that it’s about menstruation. There are local jokes, when women talk with each other, and one other says: “Well, are you still wearing a shirt?” Another answers: “No, I’m not five years”. My husband said: “Well don’t wear, even after you sleep in the shirt”.

This kind of transfers and euphemisms a lot, but sometimes, of course, some words, expressing real nudity, just as the desire for nudity, the rural population and the older generation have no respect. They roundly condemned.

“the Whole naked man goes breast, then pressed a little, ass closed, I say, has been taken out would be all and would go so nakolec. Strahm, Strahm shaped!”; “On the TV show sisters — you want to barf! Went to watch a movie: all naked, and young, who watched, could not sit still in place”.

At the same time, the erotic within the cultural tradition (in folklore and not only) is perceived as something funny and amusing. For example, village women see naked portraits in the art gallery. They talk about how they went to Leningrad and in the Museum were taken: “We are all the portraits held in Leningrad: the little wife naked, titoki stick — we laughed”. That is, from the point of view of popular culture nudity is obscene but funny. Propositions, which the man makes the woman (or guy for the girl), in the form of limericks look like endorse naughtiness, but in reality treated as a gross violation of ethics.

“We came to the physical, he [the doctor] said to me, “You wait.” What is it? I walked to the side. “Shall we go, I have sexual feelings!” I beads revealed [in the sense of the eye], has amazed all. I was very young: twenty-something years had me. I said, “AK what it is! -What’s the trouble, trouble!””

That is, to any “sexual feelings” absolutely no one was going to answer, but in erotic folklore reflects the same comic culture, like, say, during the Renaissance. However, possible and impossible: children use foul language, and adults too, everyone is busy with desire to fuck (including old men and women), constantly having a ridiculous pair (girl binds himself to the old man with the old man). Very strong anticlerical motive: the name of the genitals apply to objects, animals, people; genitals personifizierte, live their own lives; intertwined high and low, cursing and Boba, zagovornye tradition, a parody of the plots, religious ceremonies, parody them, and so on.

Now imagine Latin obscene Russian counterparts and Russian decent words. Of Russian decent, of course, much more. “Genitalia”: no obscene; decent — “genitals”. “Penis,” “phallus”: the Russian offensive [***], dick, Elda, cock; Russian decent member. “Balls” (testicles): Russian obscene Moody, muda, mude; decent — eggs, testicles.

So looks like now the language of bodily effort. Allocated (in square brackets — ed. “Of the”) forbidden word. The rest, in General, can also be treated to the Mat.

same with the female sexual organ. Vagina: Russian offensive [*****]; no decent. “Clitoris”: Russian obscene — Szekely (shekel); decent not. “Hip and pelvic part of the body back”: Russian lewd — ass; Russian decent — ass (ass, ass).

But it is not always a match, so to speak, anatomy, and folk traditions. The question arises: what mate?

the Mat, and scientifically- obscene vocabulary (from Latin “obscene” — “obscene”, “immoral”) is taboo, forbidden words. Allocate four to eight swear words or roots. First and foremost is the word for a solid bottom: the genitals — for women ([*****] and pussy) and male ([***] and the adjoining “dick”), the male testes, testicles (“Moody” or “Moody”) and a verb denoting intercourse. Here also identify the name of the scarlet woman [*****], although originally this word to the obscene vocabulary is not treated. For slutty women in popular culture there is a huge number of words — several dozen, probably.

since all swear words relate to bodily bottom, they became forbidden when the subject of corporal bottom was prohibited.

Many people consider abusive some others, especially the hurtful words that are used in battle. For example, “fag” (in that version, other than “bugger”). According to some polls, many consider obscene and him, but . forbidden four words (sexual organs men and women, the process of copulation and lewd woman — ed. “Of the”).

for some reason on these four Roskomnadzor decided that to pronounce them wrong, and so I’ll use instead euphemisms: instead of the male sexual organ will say “fuck” or “dick” instead of women will say “star”. “Slutty woman” in General no need to mention, because it is to erotica has no direct relationship.

the Origin (of the etymology) of the word “Mat” is not clear, but Russian speakers, of course, bind the foul mother: “father’s mother learned to swear,” “motherhood have brought me,” “I and mother bent”, “write well, God will forgive me about all the mother’s written about father written.”

the Origin of these words is one of the most complex mysteries. You’ve got to be very careful to know a lot of closely related languages, knowing the complex of phonetic transitions and compliance, which has varied in different epochs. In addition, there had always live or once lived people belonging to different Nations, speaking different languages, and neighborly, they could borrow each other’s words.

But it has been proven that all the swear words, of course, belong to the Slavic Russian language. Even, say, in the nineteenth century, for some reason thought that this is a Tatar borrowing, but still the Mat belongs to the Slavic vocabulary.

However, many of these words are obscure, “dark” etymology. That is, it is not proven, there are many conflicting hypotheses. For example, is still not established the origin of both names of the female genital organs. The name of the male sexual organ and the word “needles” go back to one root in the values of “branch”, “escape”, “number”. The verb [*****] in all the Slavic world has long been used in the sense of “to copulate”, but originally, apparently, meant “to beat”, “hit”, “push”. Like many other euphemisms which were suddenly banned, the word [*****] (a lewd woman) Mat were not considered. It was banned, apparently because of the frequency. By the way, the word “pancake”, which at one time was extremely common a euphemism for this word, but etymologically it goes back to the meaning of “fraud”, “nothing”.

the Real origin of a word can be difficult to install, and native speakers often do the so-called folk etymology, or naive etymology. That is, they are to your taste like together, they think of the word.

This convergence of words sounding — one of the principles of language poetry, for example, but only a real science, this principle is irrelevant. So, the etymologists are not sure what the origin of the word “mate” is associated with the mother. But the people sure.

In the folk culture there is a folk formation, associated with the erotic: limericks, wedding songs, tales (which Alexander Afanasiev called “cherished”), incantations, riddles, Proverbs and sayings. For example, in “Russian treasured fairy tales” Afanaseva, published originally in Germany, various folk forms of obscene language in the conspiracy.


“you Wasps, wasps, red-hot noses, sit in the nest as [***] [*****]”.

“Peck, ripka, Cluj, dog [***]. Pecking you will not — you [***] to be seen. Here, takii slander. And pomogat other races”.

“cruzy Snake dick, snake dick cruzy, not odds loss — Cruze severty”.

But was found and a parody of conspiracy.

“toothache year, suffered from two teeth; the teeth has become easier — become a member is hold on tight”.

“Holy Nestor, get it together, the joint at the joint is put, for a member leave the place”.

“the Forest was dumped, fell but hurt himself, and then the guy says, “say girl, came to the stile, Vasilisa, star Ogallala, blood ostanovilsya”.

Among genres, including erotica, there are proposals, statements containing the acrostic (text, in which the first letters of words or lines form a word or phrase approx. “Of the”):

“Pelagia Ivanovna forgot ABC”.

there are mysteries that are perceived as extremely obscene, although it seems to be good. A lot of examples, when provoked by an indecent word, but the answer, of course, innocent.

the Play on words is evident in the production of rhymes. An obscene word may be accompanied by the name, that is, to be a teaser at the name. It is found in ryflowana saying.

“Ondrej, hold [***] wakes me up!”; “Olesha-Olesha, cherof burden”; “Lizaveta dick Chiba for it”; “Zaftra Saturday, the dick is not a robot”; “Fennel, parsley, tsaka kruska” etc.

Very often obscene word becomes the word-echoes, the pair combination with the final — suffix and ending, adapting to the main word. Very often the word echo appears in the dialog. This, of course, associated with unlimited derivational possibilities of obscene language. “fuck! — F the old faith!”

But most often the Mat is used in the rhymes “with pictures.” “Pictures” is a hooligan or obscene words. Often this pancake ditties. I think that the euphemism “picture” instead of the Mat is associated with playing cards, where very often on the shirt depicted obscenity. The same song “with pictures.”

In the 90 years there was a lot of erotic and folklore collections. Was reissued collection of Afanasyev’s “sacred tales”. It consists of erotic fairy tales, such as tale of seeding members.

At that time were published such collections as “Ladomir” and “Russian erotic folklore” from the XVII to the XX century. In the last given the text of two pancake songs. It is quite erotic. And at the end of the book even gives a list of euphemisms for male genitalia, for example: RAM, battery, white feather, borovok, his and so on.

there is already quite a lot of euphemisms, that appear in such texts. But I must say that this is not all of them.

In the 90s there was also a big number of dictionaries associated with the Mat. The great dictionary of Mat made Alexei Plutser-Sarno. It has two volumes: volume one — the male sexual organ, volume two — women. In this dictionary a whole volume is devoted to phraseology. This phraseology is, of course, refers not only to the erotic but also to the battlefield, for example.

the Initial value of the words for genitals go far beyond. Everyone knows the basic meaning of these words, but they are usually used in completely different meanings, have very high expression. There are neutral words, and there are bright, expressive. That is obscene vocabulary — this vocabulary is very emotional, expressive. It has great derivational potential. The roots of the words will lose touch with its original, primary meaning, become empty, and the meaning of the word is obtained by the service particles — morphemes, suffixes, prefixes.

One of the first dictionaries that came out in the 90-ies, is a very good name — “Beyond the dictionary”. Alec Flegon (the British writer — ed. “Of the”) not a linguist, and therefore he in this dictionary such a hodgepodge: there is not only the Mat and erotic, but also some very strange words. And very often it is these words incorrectly atributiruemy. For example, he cites a line from Galich: “I went out with this bastard”. As the initial form, it gives the word “bitch” as an adjective, although it is clear that it is a noun.

In General, linguists are rightly criticized this vocabulary, however Phlegon was the one who gave impetus to the emergence of these dictionaries.

Another — “Dictionary of swear words and expressions in Russian literature” — composed literary texts, from Barkov and Pushkin to the present day. It cites examples from the literature. It uses, of course, not only swear words, but just the swear.

“Russian cherished idioms” written Anatoly Baranov under the pseudonym Basil Buoy. The buoy is accordingly a euphemism. This dictionary is a linguistic specialist made, but I think it takes into account not all the values.

the dictionaries are very small, recently appeared in St. Petersburg “Swear right.” It explains the different structures with examples from the literature.

areas of use of the Mat and the reasons for its use are diverse. Experts call the various functions of the use of obscene language in speech enhancement it is emotional, discharge of psychological stress, the degradation, the humiliation of the addressee of speech, the demonstration of freedom, independence of the speaker, neglecting the system of prohibitions, demonstration of affiliation of the speaker to “his” — and so on.

“I am furious, upset and Mat would say — also a sin. Sometimes mackays — when in frustration. Not to say that we didn’t meticales. The horse is not — matchesa. I obrigados (caring for the cattle), I matyukatsya. And how, without swearing? And this Mat we have harmless. It is, as they say, for a bunch of words: for fun matuga’ve been screwing. I don’t like the mother. If the matter only viterne”.

Extensive phraseology associated with obscene abuse. Swear great, great mate, send large matuhi, produce a great mother. What exactly is meant by “big you” is not always obvious. Large, round, coarse swearing, mamuskami, the greatest obscenities are often promises, but in our case, this formula is “to send [***]”. It is large matuhi in the first place are replacements. Well, for example, “fuck” is a little erasing a dirty word, and “to [***]” — he’s great.

Big you may be considered obscene the use of any root, including a standard ternary or docline curses.

“Before cursing? Cholera Yes, Satan. Now, more and more big mate, the biggest: three letters”.

“Drugi floor, dryguy floor, drygy the ceilings. So in fact there’s matushki. Leave, a mother, not yet battered”.

Sometimes, however, neither large nor small curse does not imply the presence of obscene language that does not reduce the expressiveness of the utterance. A small expletive — chiry your throat, and a large hundred of boils in the throat. We see that the curse may be, and without the Mat.

Women are lovers, even though they imposed a special prohibition to swear. There is a prohibition to swear at women.

Now we will see what means the idiom “[**] your mother”, which means “was your mother.”

the big question, how to understand the first word — that is “had”. Who was the mother of the most? I, you or he? In the past tense is no category of persons and the three persons of the mix. The most famous version of the explanation of the meaning of this idiom belongs to Boris A. Uspensky. Having considered the extensive material of ancient manuscripts and modern field recordings, he linked this expression with the culture of mother earth, with the cult of Mary and his mother.

the Subject of the action, is not fixed in the Russian version, but preserved in some Slavic languages, he believes dog. That is, the assumption suggests that the subject action is a “he” (like a dog), and “he” had your mother.

In the Arkhangelsk dialects, as in the manuscripts, there are no examples of four-membered version of the idiom. But if we take into account such a hypothesis, lost the first member can be not only a dog, but damn. This is my assumption.

Maybe there was variability: the dog, hell, demon, devil, Goblin and others. Then the meaning of the expression “[**] your mother” is to insult the interlocutor. Someone- the dog, the devil, the devil was with your mother. Therefore you’re illegitimate. Hence the phrase “damn son”, “devil’s children”, “dog children”, “Peshev son.”

Researcher Kovalev brings a link to Zelenin. He wrote: “the So-called obscene Russian language is equivalent, in fact, abusive expressions: cub, puppy, etc., emphasizing the youth and inexperience of the object of war.”

Swearing here exposes himself as the father of the one he scolds, formula indecent abusive swearing means, in fact, “I am your father”, or rather “I could be your father!”. As it turns out Kipling: “We with you one blood, you and me.”

But Kovalev believes that the subject of the action in the trinomial is the first person. This expression can be attributed to the end of the era of matriarchy and collapse of Patriarchy. The value it already at that time was not obscene, but rather property.

With a mother kind of became a host family, therefore, the ancient value of the expression must be understood as “now I’m your father” or “I am now the owner of all that you belonged.” But redefining the subject of the action from first person to third is considered later. Most likely, the primary was the expression with “I”. I’m inclined to believe it because then why a special prohibition to swear and say this formula was applied specifically for women. If a woman utters this phrase, it generally loses its meaning, and even from the grammatical point of view.

Although it is actually in this trinomial can be replaced with each word. Your grammar and euphemistic options has the verb “hildren” (as it was pronounced in antiquity). Possessive pronouns can be not only “your” and “your” and “his”, “her”, “them”. Exposed to a variety of variation the final version: instead of the word “mother” can be so many other options. Euphemisms classical variant of this expression perhaps derives from the need to retain General expressiveness while reducing the coarseness of the expression without using the actual obscene words.

I believe that in order for the euphemism was recognizable, need special markers: phonetic, grammatical and syntactical. The frequency is a phonetic marker that is a euphemism begins with the sound of “yacht”, followed by the vowel “o” or “e”: ruff, ex, hedgehog, trees, eklmn, EDRI, fuck, ekuti, Japan mother, Japanese policeman and so on. “Left, ruff fucking purse”; “Holy”. There is also a grammatical marker. This, for example, the word “rowed” or “fucking”: “rowed your mother”; “mother’s leg”; “the mother of your soul”; “Oh, my God”.

Like a decent words become inappropriate? On the one hand, euphemisms are not considered obscene. They exist for the rude word to replace the structurally unstable. On the other hand, can be seen as the frequency a euphemism assumes all the functions of obscene words, and new word becomes forbidden.

such Is the fate, for example, the word “dick”. Originally it is the name of the letter “X” in the Cyrillic alphabet. This word was used as a euphemism. For example, one of the classics of the eighteenth century was: “Fuck off chambers entwined on the walls.” In fact, this description of the obscene paintings that hung on the walls. Gradually, the word “dick” was a complete analogue of the main word, including any figurative meanings, all phraseology, and now the word is considered by many as indecent.

Or, for example, the word “jerk” too, originally had two meanings: first, the rubbing, friction to clean (“before all day jerking off the ceiling, Yes sweat sherkesh”), the second — to appease someone, to indulge the whims, pamper, undead (“masturbate, potworach parents, little amuse”, “his grandmother jerking”, “jerking off a cow”, “horse wank”). All known also the verb “to fuck”, the original meaning is to strike, to beat. Now it became the main Deputy of the verb denoting intercourse.

the Word “give” is based on ambiguity: “I used all gave, sitting on a bench, do not think bad — seeds out of his pocket”.

But originally, the word “give” or “give” were as auxiliary verb with the infinitive or released, and the meaning of the phrase depended on them:

“I wish this head would come, if it gave such a statement at work not to go.”

“Lit up our bath, lit the view — our girls are not stingy to give zvezdochki”.

“Cut, wycombevale old star rated — not talked.”

there was a compression, this compression when the addition is optional, and the verb “to give” or “give” received an independent meaning to allow, to commit a sexual act, to enter into an intimate relationship:

“She climbs — she gives.”

“spree I was fifteen, I asked seventeen, married nineteen.”

“I Remember I was, I asked, can’t remember — given or not”.

Euphemisms can be sustainable and can be occasional. Here’s a joke based on a play of words:

“the Guy says, “Yes, I Have soft cheese.” She said: “Oh, come on!” And he got a soft Yes from raw”.

Soft is a small round bread, substantivized noun. That is the girl listeda for gifts and hoped that she was offered food, but in fact she offered coitus, copulation, and describes soft and moist penis.

the Word “sex” in today’s common value associated with coitus, in English-speaking countries appeared only in 1929, and the word “sexy” in 1959. According to the National corpus of the Russian language, the use of the word “sex” increases dramatically with the 60-ies of XX century, and the peak occurs at the beginning of the XXI century. It was found in, say, 1,000 documents of the 115 000 had been used a little more than 4000 times among 283 500 000 words. That is, we think that everything is just about sex and say that it is a common word, but it turns out that not all, not always and not very often.

Those synonyms that was to the words “sex” (intercourse, sex life, sexual intercourse, intercourse, communication), Express the same thing, but they are still in use. It should always be borne in mind, because some combinations are impossible because of this of secondary importance. For example, you cannot say “the landlord is in connection with his peasants,” because “to have contact” means to have sex. Also, similar words include “walk”, “wander”, “to”, “live”, “sleep”, “sin”, “penetrate”, “to tear up” and so on.

“Girls perch were caught, all Amalia tail. Couldn’t wait for Easter sinned in lent”.

“Sleep, sleep, aunt, sleep and molodushka, daughters of your tear, you no caring”.

“Who is penny, who penny, who vitoret so.”

“I clicked today and yesterday everything clicked — a fool I went, there it would stumble Yes”.

“I Was young, but can feel, Yes it is possible to dig”.

“Your business — not to give birth: I shoved, spit and run”.

Sometimes a euphemism is used as a verb, is grammatically similar to obscene.

“Oh, I feel sick, the unloved to me, I goryushko takes without any scratching me”.

you Can also use the idiom:

“Across the fence, over the fence went to the Barney bear in the yard, yew tree bed went the runners to bend”.

We can even be clear what it is the euphemisms. Sometimes instead of the word may be pauses or interjections, accompanied by a gesture: “a Novel two pockets, Romanii bag. He Romanykha… to the gut”. the Answer is “stuffed to the guts”.

There are many mysteries with an innocent answer. “in the stanchion, and in the beds between the legs pushing the fever”. It’s just a broom in the bath. “hi wave Yes, but the herring shove, tychi Yes urine, on the edge of voloci”. It’s about lifting the bucket from the well.

Erotic literature known since the olden times. In Russian literature Mat — a significant cultural layer. And although it is latent, hidden, unpronounceable, every cultured person should be familiar with it well. Erotic mate not always overlap, however, in poetry metaphors are even much more sophisticated than in popular culture.

Obscene poetry was especially popular in the XVIII-XIX centuries. First and foremost, this so-called barkovschina obscene writings attributed to Ivan Barkov. The most famous collections of obscene poetry “the Maiden toy” and “Girl pranks”. There came “Gavriliada”, “Barkov’s Shadow” by Pushkin and Lermontov poem cadet. Erotic poems are available in almost all the major poets. The line of decency and indecency is different from Yesenin and Mayakovsky, Pelevin, and Kibirov, Leskovskogo and Sorokina, even the Cord. Although his poetry does not appeal to me, because when he evidently with Conservatoire education sings, sorry, [*****] (the female body) is a game of people, and it’s confusing me.

In the language of eroticism is a kind of globalization, simplification, average. We often use words of Latin origin that will soon be typical for a rural culture. There was a time when young people are many mothers on the streets. Because of this frequent use of swear words can become common usage, lost its expression. But I think this will not happen.

do you Need a new language to talk to kids about sex? While we have two directions: use the terms from language of medicine and effeminacy. The latter is largely due to the play of words, which, I think, is still going on in every culture. But each couple can come up with their own language of love. And it will be much more interesting than to call things by their proper names.

place Names and surnames that occurred from the euphemisms, too much. I, for example, had a friend by the name of Fools. When he married, took his wife’s surname. Although the galaxy of artists, Durov even thought to change her name. Same with abusive names. Sometimes they are not even perceived as dirty. For example, the name PE is derived from the word “fishing”. It could be a euphemism, but could not be.

Neutral language still exists, so in Russian we can speak about sex not only medical terms or language. But ambiguity arises when using words with multiple meanings, therefore, they need to be very careful.

Putin made the summer Olympics games in Russia

Russia may bid to host the summer Olympics, the President said Vladimir Putin in the course of communication with volunteers for the 2018 world Cup in Kaliningrad. It quotes TASS on Friday, July 20.

“possible,” the President said in response to the question of whether Russia is to host the summer Games.

He said that while the Russian side has not filed the appropriate application, and stressed that it is important to talk not only about the conduct of the country of certain large-scale events, but also about how to use the infrastructure for sports development in the country.

on Friday, the President visited built for the world Cup stadium in Kaliningrad and watched the training of young players.

In 2014 Sochi winter Olympics took place. The Russian team won 13 gold, 11 silver and 9 bronze medals. However, due to the doping scandal, the international Olympic Committee to cancel many of the results of Russian athletes. To return a place in the top three of Russia succeeded only in February after the decision of the court of arbitration for Sport.

“This money will suffice only on bread”

Soviet pension system today, it is customary to speak well. However, like all other systems, within which were built the life of the Soviet people in the “good old days”. They remember with nostalgia, even those whose retirement age has not yet come — that is, they say, in the Soviet Union retirees lived, not survived, not now! So whether it was in fact, dealt “the”.

“my Grandmother worked very little, but lived in the city. She had four children. She received, it seems rubles 25 in the early 1960’s. my Grandmother bought “out of retirement” 150 grams doctoral sausage, I asked her to cut, and we (I was seven) had to eat a sausage right outside the store. It was so delicious that nothing would be better”, — says the pensioner Sergey in interview to the newspaper “New retiree”. There’s also other people talk about their parents: mother was a farm girl, at the end of 60 years received a pension of 12 rubles; mom worked at a fur factory, due to the interrupted time received a pension of 30 roubles.

Now, when you talk about pensions, remember it was the Soviet time and the Soviet pension system. They say, let this diversity of products on the shelves, and queues had to stand, but pensioners are not in poverty and on his retirement lived much better than the present, because the products that you could get, even after standing several hours, was worth significantly less.

When was this? Someone will say that in the Brezhnev era, “blessed stagnation”, someone remembers the good word of Joseph Stalin, for some, this period extends until the beginning of the “cursed” adjustment. It is clear that those who began receiving a pension before the collapse of the Soviet Union, now in the best case 80, and the judge, they can only about positive and negative aspects of the pension system of the Soviet Union, faced themselves. Yes, make allowances for the fact that in those days they were younger, healthier, and thus saw the world in a much more rosy than now. Meanwhile, the pension system of the Soviet Union in the form in which it existed in the 1980-ies of the last century, was adopted not by the decree of the Bolsheviks in 1917.

the status of the man as a respected member of society, passed a challenging career, stuck in an old Soviet man is closer to 1930-m to years. In the first years after the revolution the elderly — particularly women — were considered, according to the historian Maria Romashova, as “ideologically alien, backward, mired in life and decomposing children’s religious upbringing”.

“the Old was equivalent to dying, and the process of extinction was not supposed to hold anyone’s attention. Youth and old age have ceased to be a natural biological phenomena, in different stages of the same human life. Young is clearly not going to get old. Old age was under suspicion,” explains this trend, literary critic Marietta Chudakova.

Indeed, the pension system, even in its rudimentary form, was developed in the USSR long enough. In 1918 the decree of people’s Commissars of the RSFSR entitled to social benefits received citizens “deprived of their main income or part thereof due to incapacity or unemployment.” That is, it was either on the Dole or on disability pensions.

during the 1920-ies gradually, there were other categories of citizens eligible for social benefits. So, in 1921 on increased pensions could qualify “for the elderly and disabled people’s teachers, meritorious service to public education”. Gradually introduced pensions for the military, who become disabled during hostilities, and in 1929 the pension finally received certain categories of employees. It was the workers of mining, metallurgical and electrotechnical industry, but also railway and water transport. Here one can meet familiar figures: pensions were paid to men 60 years and women 55 years of age. The first experience had to be 25 years and the second 20 years.

Finally, an important milestone in the development of the pension system of the USSR was the article 12 of “Regulations on pensions and social security benefits”, approved by the decree of people’s Commissars in 1930. According to her all employees of SOEs could qualify for pension payments upon retirement. However, it is important to understand that while the USSR was a predominantly agrarian country, but on state pensions for farmers and peasants were not discussed, although they accounted for a large part of the population. But in 1935, in the Constitution of the Soviet Union was enshrined the right of all citizens to pension benefits.

How is it implemented? First of all, it should be noted that no pension Fund then the country did not exist. The burden of creating social funds were assigned to each company. In the collective Board of the cooperative was on the common decision to create a social Fund and a charitable Fund.

But it should be understood that the farm budget is primarily allocated for immediate needs, and often collective-farm pensioners no money saw they were replaced with genuine payment — grain, hay, firewood, etc. in addition, they were not binding, so a strong collective payments was weak and the elderly were often left with nothing.

according to doctor of historical Sciences Tatiana dimoni women, the study work on the elimination and prevention of poverty, carried out by regional departments of social security of the Vologda region in the early 1950-ies, showed that elderly and sick people, often single (usually over 70 years), were forced to “assemble the pieces”. In each district of the region, there were from a dozen to fifty people.

However, already in 1939 in the Great Soviet encyclopedia was written that “only in the Soviet Union citizens enjoy material security in old age and in case of illness and disability”. Here is the amount that is reserved for such payments in the budget for 1938: 3, 46 billion rubles.

But, as writes in his “Pension provision in the USSR” doctor of historical Sciences Vladimir Mamyachenkov, if you hold some simple calculations, with a total population of 160 million people, taking the proportion of pensioners over 15 percent, the average pension work in the amount of 150 rubles (pre-reform money — 15-denominated rubles). “At the same time a one meter woolen fabric [old money] was worth 87 rubles, a pair of boots or shoes the 50 — meter silk — 36 cubic metre wood — 18, and a pair of Slippers — 11,” he says.

Despite the fact that in the 1950-ies the situation has generally improved, it remains extremely unsatisfactory. No way to openly complain about low payouts (or lack thereof) of the citizens were not, so they invented interesting ways for them to say. Mamyachenkov gives an example, when during the elections of deputies of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 1954 in the urn was discovered a Bulletin with the following text: “Not allowed so far the Position on pensions. The amount of pension is set 90-155 rubles — this amount is clearly insufficient at current prices. This money may be enough only for one person, and then only for the bread, the more he will not be able to ensure its existence”.

the pensions Act was finally passed in 1956. It really is significantly raised pensions in the country (average 81%) and minimum in the amount of 300 rubles, and a maximum in the amount of 1,200 rubles (i.e., 30 and 120 rubles after denomination). But it is important to note that all these pleasures were available with experience of 25 years at men and 20 years for women. In its absence or shortage of the minimum pension was 75 roubles (7,5 rubles), which of course looked ridiculous.

And then we have to consider that many women, having grown old and not having experience, literally found themselves on the maintenance of children. “They constituted a numerous Legion of those who brought up the “new Soviet man”, despite the declarations about the necessity of public education bore the brunt of all the household chores, while their adult children worked on the production”, — said in his work Maria Romashova.

it is Also important to note that the law of 1956 is still not concerned farmers — the relevant legislation was enacted only in 1964. In this work they were supposed longer than other categories of citizens — 65 years men and 60 years for women, and the maximum pension was set in the amount of 120 and 102 rubles. “But this maximum has remained an unattainable dream rural pensioners: the average pensions of farmers was just miserable,” writes Mamyachenkov. Only 12 rubles — as was usually made the collective farm pensioners, after the adoption of the law, but by 1985 this figure had barely risen to 40 rubles.

in this society since 1920-ies there was the privileged category of citizens whose pension was considerably higher than the maximum. It was a so-called personal pensioners — certain people who “made an exceptional contribution to the construction of the Soviet state”. People who received a personal pension, were divided into personal pensioners of the Union, Republican and local importance. In 1977, these pensions were 250, 160 and 140 rubles, respectively. In addition, there was an additional payment to workers with more seniority, as well as the old Bolsheviks, exiles and political prisoners of the Russian Empire. They were put and special benefits. Received allowance for retirement and retired military. The circle of these persons, however, were severely limited, and significant impact on the overall picture they are not provided.

the Merit which appointed a personal pension, were sometimes quite controversial. “So, in 1961, the regional party asked to grant a pension of Republican significance no one M., the employee of the Gulag, which “…since 1942, is constantly on the party work in the system of corrective labor camps and colonies interior Ministry”,” writes Mamyachenkov.

of Course, the Communist party and the Soviet Motherland not to overlook those who led them. For example, Nikita Khrushchev, sent to forced retirement in 1964 and in 1965 received pension payments in the amount of 500 rubles per month. Party officials of high rank were too often retired with pensions, which amount exceeded payments to pensioners personal Union values.

you Cannot, however, be noted that payments were regularly increased, and by 1980, the average pension in the USSR was about 70 rubles. But it is important to understand that around a quarter of pensioners of the Soviet Union received the minimum pension. A domestic boots with faux fur cost 80 rubles, the coat — 111 rubles, not to mention all sorts of frills like home appliances and electronics (which had yet to get it).

the number of citizens of retirement age by the end of the Soviet era grew rapidly, and payments of state-owned enterprises social spending remained the same the gap was covered by government subsidies. The multiplicity of different pension schemes, the General confusion and opacity of the system only aggravated the situation. The oil crisis of the 1980-ies the social costs of state has made a significant contribution to the country’s budget deficit. Huge Soviet country, which ultimately collapsed under the weight of this and other problems, growing like a snowball.

He lived and died

16 years ago, unremarkable American has committed suicide in his own house. Since then, the state of Ohio trying to figure out who this man was: he stole the identity of eight-year-old boy, who died in a car crash more than 50 years ago, and could be one of the most famous serial killers of the United States. “the” tells how over the years of searching, investigators were able to only learn his real name, but mysteries became even greater.

21 Dec 1945 family of Americans went to celebrate Christmas with grandma. The chandlers loaded-prepared gifts in the trunk of the family car and hit the road. After a few hours of their car at high speed collided with a truck whose driver had swerved into oncoming traffic in an attempt to avoid the parked cars.

Joseph Newton Chandler II, Elena, “Billy” Chandler and their son Joseph Newton Chandler III had died instantly. After 56 years, it was found that under the name of eight-year-old boy, who died in a car accident, another one died.

June 23, 2002 in the small American town of Eastlake, Ohio, Joe Chandler returned from work, turned the unit off, crossed out not until the end of the day in the calendar, went into the bathroom and committed suicide. Police found his body a week later by a sharp odor coming from his home. Near him was found a revolver.

Joe worked as an electrician-designer in chemical company Lubrizol. He was a normal, slightly introverted and a man she hardly noticed colleagues. Colleagues seen in the behavior of Jo’s oddities, but no more. For example to concentrate, he turned on the TV and specifically enabled it with white noise. Once he was at a theme party dressed as a gangster, but with anyone and not talking. Sometimes, according to colleagues, he had bouts of paranoia: he felt someone watching him.

Shortly before his suicide Joe was diagnosed with colon cancer, so the investigation especially no one did, considering his illness a valid reason for departure.

the First of the mysterious details of this case emerged when the investigators found in the Bank account of the deceased 82 thousand dollars and started looking for possible heirs. The investigation quickly established that the relatives had not been. As there was the Chandler — an old closed designer never existed. The real Joseph Newton Chandler III had died more than half a century ago. The story was leaked to the media, and the next 16 years, journalists, Internet investigators and other enthusiasts tried to understand who actually was a normal-looking lone American.

First Marshal Pete Elliott, who led the case, decided to see if it matches DNA in the database uncaught dangerous criminals. By the beginning of the investigation of pseudo-Chandler already cremated and buried under that name, which was familiar to his colleagues. However, DNA samples managed to get to the hospital, where he received a terminal diagnosis. Reconciliation with tens of thousands of foreign models gave nothing.

the Investigation has developed several versions. For example, experts tried to find out whether the suicide kind of Stephen Campbell, which in 1983 filled with jealousy, had prepared for his wife’s lover the bomb, but accidentally almost blew up herself. He was arrested, released on bail, and no one has ever heard of.

Campbell deceased mother engineering profession, love to assign other people’s names and some geographical coincidence. The investigation seemed to have been overlooked a huge mismatch external data the two men. Low light-eyed Chandler could not be a high brown-eyed Campbell, and the age difference they had about 15 years. Another theory of the investigation was that the fake Chandler is John Anglin, an escapee from Alcatraz, the most secure prison in the United States.

In 2014, the search resumed. In parallel, various theories investigators continued to study the DNA samples of men who over the years while in the paraffin wax, is much damaged. In 2016 to the case of connected famous forensic of geneology Colleen Fitzpatrick that has examined the Y chromosome of Chandler and after so many years of fruitless search could induce a consequence on the right track. Elliot asked Fitzpatrick after thanks to her efforts had solved a complex crime 25 years ago, and it has paid off.

In 2018, the authorities officially announced that the remains of the fake Chandler identified it was Robert Ivan Nichols.

When the family of eight Joseph Newton Chandler III was in a car accident, Nichols was 19 years old. He was born in 1926 in new Albany, Indiana. In 1945 he served in the Navy fireman 2nd class. His ship was attacked by the Japanese outside of Okinawa, he was wounded and subsequently submitted to the state award. Returning from the war, Nichols burned its shape.

In January, 1947 he married Laverne Court, they had three boys. But in 1964, Nichols left the family, saying to his wife that soon she learns the reason for his departure, moved to Michigan and then to California. In the letters to the children, he reported that he is in Redmond, but sent they were from NAPA. In 1965, he broke off all contact with his family, which after some time declared him missing.

Another 13 years, it was Robert Ivan Nichols, but in 1978 something in his life has changed dramatically. That’s when Nichols assumed the identity of long-dead Joseph Newton Chandler III. This Chandler was no social security in those years, she could only get the adults. In his map of Nichols pointed out the names of parents and date of birth of Joseph. He also managed to assign the dental records of the deceased boy. Since that time, and for the next 24 years, knew Nichols as quiet, but a little eccentric Joe Chandler.

He avoided people, he lived modestly, never attracted attention to himself, but still, in recognition of his acquaintances, was quite strange. The investigation interviewed colleagues and neighbors of the Nichols and carefully checked all the strange episodes in his life to understand why he left his former life and hid under another identity. During the investigation, for example, found an unusual fact: as a Chandler,he once went to the hospital with a torn penis, and his injury was explained by the fact that I’ve masturbated with a vacuum cleaner. Chandler also reason told colleagues about her sister Mary Wilson, but during the investigation it was found that no sister Mary, of course, does not exist.

In 2005, a famous crime journalist Steve Huff, involved in creating a crime-drama series “Better call Saul!”, advanced my theory about the person of Chandler, who later became one of the most popular. He suggested that Nichols is the serial killer known as the zodiac.

After the name of the deceased was established, Huff compared the facts of life Nichols and the famous maniac and build a plausible version.

Nichols was a draftsman and had engineering experience. For many years investigators in the case of the Zodiac gave this criminal the same skills. Many evidences indicate that the zodiac, like Nichols, was a veteran of the war. The first Zodiac crime — murder of Cheri Jo Bates — was committed a year later after the fake Chandler disappeared from family and friends.

the Famous killer called himself the zodiac in mocking letters sent to the Newspapers. In the messages he has encrypted small facts about himself, mocking those who have lost their legs in his quest. It is believed that the first letter of the cipher, the zodiac sent in 1978 — at the same time Nichols was stealing someone else’s identity and became a Chandler.

the Journalist also points to the resemblance Nichols and descriptions of the Zodiac: average height, tousled dark hair, typical for men receding hairline, glasses, round chin, a small extension on the bridge of the nose.

Hoff is Particularly worried by the fact that the last letter from Nichols to his son Phil was sent from NAPA. The second well-known Zodiac murder occurred in the NAPA valley — next to lake berries, in 1969. In the history of the Internet queries Nichols also there is one circumstance linking him to the zodiac: he studied plastic explosives. A serial killer in one of the encrypted messages drew the layout of the bombs.

the Journalist admits that he has already fallen into the trap of his own theory: he can’t look at new evidence impartially and trying to put them in their own concept. However, the journalist-enthusiast, and the official investigation are still trying to understand what made the average American declined from family and friends, to live a life in a strange place in absolute isolation, and finally suicide.