Soviet pension system today, it is customary to speak well. However, like all other systems, within which were built the life of the Soviet people in the “good old days”. They remember with nostalgia, even those whose retirement age has not yet come — that is, they say, in the Soviet Union retirees lived, not survived, not now! So whether it was in fact, dealt “the Tape.ru”.
“my Grandmother worked very little, but lived in the city. She had four children. She received, it seems rubles 25 in the early 1960’s. my Grandmother bought “out of retirement” 150 grams doctoral sausage, I asked her to cut, and we (I was seven) had to eat a sausage right outside the store. It was so delicious that nothing would be better”, — says the pensioner Sergey in interview to the newspaper “New retiree”. There’s also other people talk about their parents: mother was a farm girl, at the end of 60 years received a pension of 12 rubles; mom worked at a fur factory, due to the interrupted time received a pension of 30 roubles.
Now, when you talk about pensions, remember it was the Soviet time and the Soviet pension system. They say, let this diversity of products on the shelves, and queues had to stand, but pensioners are not in poverty and on his retirement lived much better than the present, because the products that you could get, even after standing several hours, was worth significantly less.
When was this? Someone will say that in the Brezhnev era, “blessed stagnation”, someone remembers the good word of Joseph Stalin, for some, this period extends until the beginning of the “cursed” adjustment. It is clear that those who began receiving a pension before the collapse of the Soviet Union, now in the best case 80, and the judge, they can only about positive and negative aspects of the pension system of the Soviet Union, faced themselves. Yes, make allowances for the fact that in those days they were younger, healthier, and thus saw the world in a much more rosy than now. Meanwhile, the pension system of the Soviet Union in the form in which it existed in the 1980-ies of the last century, was adopted not by the decree of the Bolsheviks in 1917.
the status of the man as a respected member of society, passed a challenging career, stuck in an old Soviet man is closer to 1930-m to years. In the first years after the revolution the elderly — particularly women — were considered, according to the historian Maria Romashova, as “ideologically alien, backward, mired in life and decomposing children’s religious upbringing”.
“the Old was equivalent to dying, and the process of extinction was not supposed to hold anyone’s attention. Youth and old age have ceased to be a natural biological phenomena, in different stages of the same human life. Young is clearly not going to get old. Old age was under suspicion,” explains this trend, literary critic Marietta Chudakova.
Indeed, the pension system, even in its rudimentary form, was developed in the USSR long enough. In 1918 the decree of people’s Commissars of the RSFSR entitled to social benefits received citizens “deprived of their main income or part thereof due to incapacity or unemployment.” That is, it was either on the Dole or on disability pensions.
during the 1920-ies gradually, there were other categories of citizens eligible for social benefits. So, in 1921 on increased pensions could qualify “for the elderly and disabled people’s teachers, meritorious service to public education”. Gradually introduced pensions for the military, who become disabled during hostilities, and in 1929 the pension finally received certain categories of employees. It was the workers of mining, metallurgical and electrotechnical industry, but also railway and water transport. Here one can meet familiar figures: pensions were paid to men 60 years and women 55 years of age. The first experience had to be 25 years and the second 20 years.
Finally, an important milestone in the development of the pension system of the USSR was the article 12 of “Regulations on pensions and social security benefits”, approved by the decree of people’s Commissars in 1930. According to her all employees of SOEs could qualify for pension payments upon retirement. However, it is important to understand that while the USSR was a predominantly agrarian country, but on state pensions for farmers and peasants were not discussed, although they accounted for a large part of the population. But in 1935, in the Constitution of the Soviet Union was enshrined the right of all citizens to pension benefits.
How is it implemented? First of all, it should be noted that no pension Fund then the country did not exist. The burden of creating social funds were assigned to each company. In the collective Board of the cooperative was on the common decision to create a social Fund and a charitable Fund.
But it should be understood that the farm budget is primarily allocated for immediate needs, and often collective-farm pensioners no money saw they were replaced with genuine payment — grain, hay, firewood, etc. in addition, they were not binding, so a strong collective payments was weak and the elderly were often left with nothing.
according to doctor of historical Sciences Tatiana dimoni women, the study work on the elimination and prevention of poverty, carried out by regional departments of social security of the Vologda region in the early 1950-ies, showed that elderly and sick people, often single (usually over 70 years), were forced to “assemble the pieces”. In each district of the region, there were from a dozen to fifty people.
However, already in 1939 in the Great Soviet encyclopedia was written that “only in the Soviet Union citizens enjoy material security in old age and in case of illness and disability”. Here is the amount that is reserved for such payments in the budget for 1938: 3, 46 billion rubles.
But, as writes in his “Pension provision in the USSR” doctor of historical Sciences Vladimir Mamyachenkov, if you hold some simple calculations, with a total population of 160 million people, taking the proportion of pensioners over 15 percent, the average pension work in the amount of 150 rubles (pre-reform money — 15-denominated rubles). “At the same time a one meter woolen fabric [old money] was worth 87 rubles, a pair of boots or shoes the 50 — meter silk — 36 cubic metre wood — 18, and a pair of Slippers — 11,” he says.
Despite the fact that in the 1950-ies the situation has generally improved, it remains extremely unsatisfactory. No way to openly complain about low payouts (or lack thereof) of the citizens were not, so they invented interesting ways for them to say. Mamyachenkov gives an example, when during the elections of deputies of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 1954 in the urn was discovered a Bulletin with the following text: “Not allowed so far the Position on pensions. The amount of pension is set 90-155 rubles — this amount is clearly insufficient at current prices. This money may be enough only for one person, and then only for the bread, the more he will not be able to ensure its existence”.
the pensions Act was finally passed in 1956. It really is significantly raised pensions in the country (average 81%) and minimum in the amount of 300 rubles, and a maximum in the amount of 1,200 rubles (i.e., 30 and 120 rubles after denomination). But it is important to note that all these pleasures were available with experience of 25 years at men and 20 years for women. In its absence or shortage of the minimum pension was 75 roubles (7,5 rubles), which of course looked ridiculous.
And then we have to consider that many women, having grown old and not having experience, literally found themselves on the maintenance of children. “They constituted a numerous Legion of those who brought up the “new Soviet man”, despite the declarations about the necessity of public education bore the brunt of all the household chores, while their adult children worked on the production”, — said in his work Maria Romashova.
it is Also important to note that the law of 1956 is still not concerned farmers — the relevant legislation was enacted only in 1964. In this work they were supposed longer than other categories of citizens — 65 years men and 60 years for women, and the maximum pension was set in the amount of 120 and 102 rubles. “But this maximum has remained an unattainable dream rural pensioners: the average pensions of farmers was just miserable,” writes Mamyachenkov. Only 12 rubles — as was usually made the collective farm pensioners, after the adoption of the law, but by 1985 this figure had barely risen to 40 rubles.
in this society since 1920-ies there was the privileged category of citizens whose pension was considerably higher than the maximum. It was a so-called personal pensioners — certain people who “made an exceptional contribution to the construction of the Soviet state”. People who received a personal pension, were divided into personal pensioners of the Union, Republican and local importance. In 1977, these pensions were 250, 160 and 140 rubles, respectively. In addition, there was an additional payment to workers with more seniority, as well as the old Bolsheviks, exiles and political prisoners of the Russian Empire. They were put and special benefits. Received allowance for retirement and retired military. The circle of these persons, however, were severely limited, and significant impact on the overall picture they are not provided.
the Merit which appointed a personal pension, were sometimes quite controversial. “So, in 1961, the regional party asked to grant a pension of Republican significance no one M., the employee of the Gulag, which “…since 1942, is constantly on the party work in the system of corrective labor camps and colonies interior Ministry”,” writes Mamyachenkov.
of Course, the Communist party and the Soviet Motherland not to overlook those who led them. For example, Nikita Khrushchev, sent to forced retirement in 1964 and in 1965 received pension payments in the amount of 500 rubles per month. Party officials of high rank were too often retired with pensions, which amount exceeded payments to pensioners personal Union values.
you Cannot, however, be noted that payments were regularly increased, and by 1980, the average pension in the USSR was about 70 rubles. But it is important to understand that around a quarter of pensioners of the Soviet Union received the minimum pension. A domestic boots with faux fur cost 80 rubles, the coat — 111 rubles, not to mention all sorts of frills like home appliances and electronics (which had yet to get it).
the number of citizens of retirement age by the end of the Soviet era grew rapidly, and payments of state-owned enterprises social spending remained the same the gap was covered by government subsidies. The multiplicity of different pension schemes, the General confusion and opacity of the system only aggravated the situation. The oil crisis of the 1980-ies the social costs of state has made a significant contribution to the country’s budget deficit. Huge Soviet country, which ultimately collapsed under the weight of this and other problems, growing like a snowball.