Every second graduate from Russian universities want to emigrate to other countries. Data received in the poll of the Center for Economics of continuous education of the Institute for applied economic research Ranepa. In research took part students of Ivanovo, Sverdlovsk and Novosibirsk regions.
last year, the Russian academic Foundation, concerned about immigration sentiments, addressed defense Minister Sergei Shoigu to provide students a reprieve from the army to 27 years. Otherwise, the “brain drain” may have a negative impact on the Russian economy.
According to Professor of the University of Middle Tennessee (USA), doctor of economic Sciences Andrey Korobkov, the problem is exaggerated. Since the beginning of 1990-ies of the scientist lives and works in America, is engaged in research of migration processes in the post-Soviet space, explores the global trend. On April international academic conference in High school Economics he presented a report “the Russian “elite” Diaspora: truth and fiction”. “the Tape.ru” wrote the main points of the speech.
lately I see a lot of publications that predicted a mass Exodus of scientists and intellectuals from the country. But migration opportunities are becoming fewer. The country’s tightening the screws. Doors for people who are not tied to a particular work, close. Great if someone wants to come down to Miami to lie on the beach and get the money from rental of a house on the ruble. But it becomes less feasible legally.
Look at England. Our people have bought real estate there and was going to live perfectly. Suddenly comes the government and says: and you can bring the papers where you got the money? As a Russian public servant could afford to buy an apartment for 11 million pounds?
Therefore, without a professional anchor to leave will be difficult. Began specific restructuring of the immigration flow. Needs qualified professionals. You are allowed with your money, but will release ago without the money.
what is happening today in the world in relation to migration cynically, but effectively described Nicolas Sarkozy, the former French President. He said that now there are two types of migration — coveted and hard-won. Welcome to he took four types of elite migration: the scientific (scientists, universities), educational (students), highly qualified specialists and a new type of that is gaining now momentum: citizenship through financial investments. Everything else is unwanted. But there are several types of migration which, for various reasons, Western countries can’t completely block — the family reunification and reception of refugees. As well as various humanitarian migration reception is affected by various technological, economic, climatic, social disasters, etc. the Legal status of these people is highly uncertain.
In the United States setting in the “elite” migration model beginning to be realized even when Barack Obama, though he does not advertise. The new President Donald trump is now trying to prioritize the move of educated youth and skilled workers in General.
In Russian history, if you think about it, the first elite labor migrants was probably Rurik and his friends. They had qualified came and got employment in different areas. One of the first times sending from Russia to study abroad at public expense is recorded in 1602. King Boris Godunov sent five boyar children in England. Russia and then in need of intelligent and educated people. But back none of them wanted to. When Peter the great, the country began to become more open to foreigners. But overall the state still functioned as a closed migration system. The main focus, the main idea of the Russian immigration has traditionally been movement of Russian at the periphery of the country, including in ethnic areas. But there was always the exchange of elites in Central Russia and the emergence in Russia of all kinds of elite immigrants from the Orthodox missionaries and employed by the military, architects and so on.
After the October revolution the Russian country for quite a while was not closed. Came on the Comintern line members of the Communist movement, were sent abroad to study Soviet people were sent in a huge number of unwanted citizens, many left the country. During the Civil war, about 2 million people left Russia. There are curious examples of those who have returned. Many returnees, especially in the 1930-ies, he regretted his decision. In 1970, from Russia there has been massive ethnic migration. Mostly Jewish. Not to say that the people of this wave was very successful from a professional point of view abroad. However, their merit is in creating a cluster of Russian emigration. In the United States — Brighton, Miami — it was a kind of backbone.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union the main essence of the migration was to move to Russia inhabitants of other post-Soviet countries. But even then, approximately 1.5 million Russians went abroad. It was mostly a migration in three countries — Germany, Israel, USA.
Modern migration flows are gradually depleted. In my version, 250-300 thousand people today really can be called intellectual immigrants in foreign countries. Also outside of Russia is studying about 50 thousand students. It is not enough. In total, according to statistics, outside of their countries of study for 4 million 500 thousand students. That is, the proportion of Russians in their flow — half percent. In my opinion, the rumors about the huge intellectual and educational waves of emigration from Russia are greatly exaggerated. Now go mostly to Western Europe — up to 40 percent. And North America 30 per cent. In both cases, is dominated by two countries — the United States and Germany.
the Only exception is the field of technical Sciences, the military-industrial complex. There’s a lot out in India more to China, Iran. A lot depends on the specialty.
the regions of the Exodus is dominated by Moscow, St.-Petersburg, Novosibirsk. But as the leaching out of the main scientific schools are gradually increasing the value of some other regions. I see more and more the presence of Tomsk. Leave out the whole lab is basically a chemical.
most Often in the Western countries traveling representatives of four professions — mathematicians who know programming, physicists, chemists, biologists. Biologists in huge numbers — about 40 percent of all emigrants professionals — take away the Americans. Same with chemists. They mainly settle in the medical complex. It is incredibly rich, huge, and has focused on pharmacological research.
In 2016, the share of refusals in the issuance of U.S. visas to Russians — 9.2%. In Ukraine during the same period — about 40 percent of failures. A year on permanent residence in the U.S. leaving Russia about 4,000. Temporary visas of different types are given annually to somewhere else 270 thousand.
it is Obvious that now this number will fall greatly due to technical reasons. I flew to Moscow from San Francisco, which hosted the largest conference of political scientists in international Affairs. According to my calculations, about 20 percent of Russian participants, and they had to be a few dozen, did not come. They just do not have time to obtain visas. Not because refused, simply because of the shortage of staff at the Embassy have an interview lined up for June-July. But behind the scenes those who want to quickly recommended to go to the U.S. Embassy in Finland, Ukraine or other neighboring countries.
the Total number of the Russian Diaspora is now estimated at one million people. Of them in the scientific field involved approximately seven to ten percent. The Russian Diaspora is very heterogeneous: weak cultural ties, strong social differences, strong tribalism, stratification along religious and ethnic lines. The irony is that the visitors can certainly perceive ourselves is very different. However, in the eye of the beholder, that is, Americans, they are immigrants from the former Soviet Union, is Russian. But now there was a pretty deep rift between Russian and Ukrainians, between Eastern and Western Ukrainians. This affects migration attitude. The Diaspora consists of those who are becoming more and more Pro-Russian, and Vice versa. These views also affect the willingness to work with Russia.
I Have over the last 12 years there have been three waves of surveys of representatives of the Russian Diaspora. I see two streams of intellectual emigration from Russia with very different characteristics, origins, dynamics. They are representatives of natural and exact Sciences and Humanities. The share of the latter is small, less than seven percent. This is not surprising. In America, many may say: find me a nuclear physicist from MIFI. But very rarely, the employer may ask, for example, the analyst of the MSU. There is unlikely to think that political science school in MSU is better than in Harvard. So the way of arrival to the West the Russians are also quite different. Even now many science frames from the beginning come to America with the existing long-term contract. Among the Humanities are dominated by people who go first as graduate students, or even students.
in order to get a permanent job in the U.S., the employer must announce a national competition. By choosing you, he has to prove to immigration authorities and Ministry of labour that among Americans there was no one with comparable skills as yours. Taking you to work, your employer must issue your documents must prove that the salary he pays you is not markedly lower than that paid to American citizens.
This leads to a curious paradox. To the Humanities to stay, to get a permanent job, he must pass through all obstacles, to withstand the competition. But the naturalist is not necessary, its no full-time more often than not take. It will be put on the grants. And for the next 20 years he will be hanging on a temporary visa. Then put it to the window and gently pushed. The scientists much more, but their conditions are worse than “exclusive” in the Humanities.There are two different immigration flow with different dynamics, with different status. This trend will remain.
it seems that in the last months of work with the Russian Diaspora in America intensified. Perhaps the team came from the Kremlin. But what this will evolve is unclear. Because the government yet does not understand what to set goals at work with the Diaspora abroad. Need to return left or to preserve the circulation of experts between the two countries?
you First need to understand who is who of Russian in the West, and then to decide who needs. A very cynical approach. But because it spent public money, it is necessary. I was two grants from the Ministry of education of Russia. Was a research project, which was to lead two scientists — Russian and foreign. In accordance with the provisions of the grant, the co-Director was two months out of the year to be in Russia.
I all the time go, I have an apartment in Moscow has an internal passport, but this is difficult for me to do. For the following grant conditions have changed: in Russia it was necessary to conduct four months. How can a Professor whose full-time, the complete list of courses, whose research program, undergraduates, doctoral students, conference presentations, publications, to do it, while not taking a sabbatical?
in Order to work effectively with immigrants, you need to know some particular countries, know how hard it is to adapt to visitors. In the US, the main elite of the profession built on the principle of the medieval corporations. What does it mean? It is not enough to receive the education of a doctor, engineer, lawyer, veterinarian. Then you will need to pass the exam in these professional associations. Officially this is done to ensure high quality professionals. Unofficially, to regulate the number of people employed in the profession. So, to guarantee them a very high income.
If you are a doctor and came to America, you have two options. Or put a Russian degree under the pillow. To go to study in an American University, having spent at least seven years. You can also go to a laboratory to conventional American doctor, who is incomparably below your qualifications, but has the status. You will be for him to do all the work, but officially can’t be a nurse because you don’t have the right documents. Gradually gaining knowledge of the terminology, you are trying to pass the exam for the profession, not having an American degree.
the Potential jackpot is very large. The starting salary of a doctor from 150 to 200 thousand dollars a year. Professor at the University, such money will not receive. But you have to overcome very serious obstacles in its path. Such a selection addresses a range of specialties.
In the scientific professions are also all easy. There is a certain structure among Russian scientists working in the United States. Of them today no more than ten percent have a lifetime guarantee of employment in universities. For this, they participated in a special professional competitions on the Institute’s departments. All the rest are sitting on a time 1-3-5-year contract or working hourly workers. But in universities both temporary and permanent are referred to the same Professor. Those who do not understand American scientific structure, very confused. Although the gap between these people in terms of status, social security is huge, even when they both are working in their profession, their skills. If the government is working to bring immigrants back, you need to understand the nuances.
of Course, if you’re dealing with the Professor, which a lifetime rate, name, its Department, then the conditions that you will want to incomparable that wants to get a candidate with a different status. Several times I sat on the activities under the code name “meeting abroad with Russian scientists”. A person comes out and begins to talk: I’m so great, I teach at three or four universities. However, in translation into Russian language it means that he is not and will never be a constant rate, he grabs everything he can, and is likely to be ready to come with joy, if he has anything to offer.
a lot of constant bluff. I remember back in 1991 I was invited to speak on American television. Listen to the speaker who came after me. He says something like this: I am a freelance correspondent of the newspaper “Odessa worker.” It’s like “new York times”. A very famous newspaper in the Soviet Union. In addition, I am the President of the cooperative “Russian broom” is one of the largest corporations in the USSR. Oh, and incidentally I’m also an Advisor to President Gorbachev for the economy. He says in Alabama, who knows what is true and what is not?
the same thing is happening in Russia in the choice of partners among the scholars for some public projects or at the invitation of foreign experts. Lately, abroad, is created a lot of different associations of Russian scientists. Usually the members of these associations are not the stars of science. Their main goal, like many others, stick to some funds, programmes in Russia. Lately I see interesting picture — they started rewarding each other with all sorts of medals, prizes, diplomas and pomp about it all. That is, to tolerate the Soviet style in the activities of these scientific associations.
With their diasporas begin to work and other countries. The most typical example is China. Over the past 30 years, China has left more than 2 million 600 thousand people. Now abroad are 340 thousand Chinese students. The Chinese changed the policy just in the last few years. Today they are struggling to attract migrants back.
I Propose to return and young, and the scientists who began to retire. It is the Chinese that first 30 years ago arrived in the United States. They are offered on favorable terms to return to Chinese schools, open specifically for them in some kind of laboratory. American Professor somewhere by the age of 60 often in a situation when his pension is more than the salary. For some it makes no difference, because they love what they do. But many prefer to leave. In this situation, you can retire to go home to China to get a full pension and a salary.
India also stimulates the return of their compatriots. Now abroad studying more than 200 thousand Indian students. The country has introduced a special passport of a person with Indian roots. Got it today, more than 14 million persons of Indian origin. It gives the right of visa-free entry into the country. Anyone can open a business and get tax benefits.
Some work with compatriots are Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, even Eastern Europe — Hungary, Poland. Other countries are also engaged in the hunt for educated young people. In recent years there has been an interesting trend. With graduates of American universities are actively working in Argentina, South Korea and several other countries. Especially those who complete doctoral studies. If they do not find work in the US, many get the offer to go to work in research centers and universities of these countries. so now there is active development of the global labour market, competition for elite personnel. This means that for the preservation and acquisition professionals need to create competitive conditions. Want to attract skilled labor from abroad — to provide conditions, housing, social, and political guarantees.