In Moscow in late may — early June on the red square and Pushkin square held a book festival, which hosted more than 500 events, attended by over 200 thousand people. Explorer “the Tape.ru” Natalia Kochetkova talked with the Chairman of the organizing Committee of the festival — a Russian presidential adviser on culture Vladimir Tolstoy about how literature affects foreign policy and the attitude of provocation and manipulation in art.
Book festival on the red square all these years was positioned as purely Russian, and this year it attracted quite a decent foreign delegation: Anna gavalda, Sulfu have Livaneli, Meir Shalev and they are not alone. How to treat this? How to change the format?
Thick: As for his search. Initially, the festival as a participant appeared Belarus. Now the foreign delegation. Perhaps this step is to ensure that book festival at some point will be international. We are thinking about it and perhaps now this is especially true given the complexity of international relations. Want to strengthen cultural communication, communication in literature. And this is one of the possibilities. Of course, writers come and other book events in Moscow, but we position the festival “Red square” as the main, Central. It is tested, proven and allows you to expand the boundaries.
Arrived Turkish writer Zulfu have Livaneli, and Russia with Turkey in the recent past, relations were strained.
When they were the most intense, the prize “Yasnaya Polyana” was awarded Orhan Pamuk (laughs).
Arrived French Anna gavalda, and we remember that in March of this year Russia was the guest of honor of Paris book fair and the President of the Makron did not come to the Russian stand.
But macron has just arrived at the St. Petersburg economic forum, and even has promised in case of successful performance of the national team of France of football to come and support her at the world Championships in Moscow, so, apparently, relations are improving. This is not directly related things — it’s not that we tried to invite someone who has now relations with Russia better or worse, and just a bright, interesting people, and to work out a format for the future, since major writers need to invite too far in advance the work to start, maybe even a year. That is, after the festival, to start thinking about the next one.
Here I’d like to ask about the award “Yasnaya Polyana”, where you — the Chairman of the jury, already selected the winner of the foreign category?
We decided on a very short list of foreign literature — 5-6 names. Now start negotiations with those who have the highest rating.
(laughs), because it will be clear who is the winner.
When the book festival on red square began, the organizing Committee was conscious of the position to include in the program as many events. Looking at the programme this year, it is difficult to escape the impression that the best events are even better, but optional has not disappeared. Not whether it pollutes the information space?
we, as the organizers, the concessions to the participants. There are key program, which forms the Executive management and supervisors of the venues. There are regions. Among their publications, too, have their findings. We don’t always know the authors from the regions, and for them it is the opportunity to go to the Federal level. Don’t give them that chance.
Today the system of distribution of the book is imperfect in our country. The book, published in the regions, for the most part there deposited. And don’t always get into the Internet. A lot of interesting research, regional findings do not become nationwide phenomenon. And the festival for them is a chance.
would Now like books cease to be purely paper, audiobooks has occupied its stable niche.
the Apparent growth of sales of electronic also stopped — they too have their niche. I think a paper book is still still relevant, there is no sense that there will be a complete replacement of the paper to the email.
But the trouble came from not waiting — I think they changed the procedure reading. Partly now the electronic media began to push books. The so-called longreads is the nights that people could spend on reading books.
I think that this situation will be distributed in a natural way. Electronic media move demand: if the demand is there, they extend the offer.
Here I have a big family: four adult children of different ages. For example, my older daughter prefers paper books. She looks on the Internet, something to read, and then read it on paper.
I prefer paper books and electronic reading only flying visits when it is inconvenient to carry a lot of books, although one or two still take. Force of habit, and I get aesthetic pleasure from the paper copy. And eyes get tired less.
My younger children read everything in electronic form. Even if they have a paper book, they try to find it in electronic form. It’s a question of habit and convenience. Probably, the younger generation is moving towards electronic text.
Although this is the youngest of my sons, he was 20, he was fond of poetry of the 1970s and 80s, looking for rare editions Novikov, Boris Red on the network, he orders them around the world and reads on paper. So it is always an individual story. So you like reading?
I work for the most books read in electronic form, because often do this even before the book was published from the press, but sometimes I give myself the opportunity to rest and pick up a paper book.
Well. So I would not have predicted the death of printed books. And there is still photographs, book illustrations, the quality of which in the print edition is still higher. So let’s wait and see.
in addition to books from the list of contenders for the award “Yasnaya Polyana”, you read a lot of contemporary literature?
Yes. First, I have my own interests, and secondly, I have a rather strange way of reading: I simultaneously read 3-4 books. You can set aside for the middle and take another.
Pressure on readers ‘ corn now and loves fiction and non-fiction. If the relevance and topicality were present in the literature, the conditional always (Turgenev after the release of “Fathers and children” said, your nihilists harness Petersburg), provocation and manipulation of the reader — the phenomenon is rather recent time. How do you treat them?
Any book looking for a way to the reader. And the publisher is looking for this way. For this purpose, different methods, including manipulative, and that’s probably okay. For me it’s not valid the concept of “fashion”. I think I’ll wait until the fashion passes, and then read.
I forgot in the list of “Yasnaya Polyana” was part of “a Small life” Yanagihara?
Yes, in the past year.
Oh, right! Does she have a very impressive Valentine Kurbatov.
Yes, he said that this book must either give the prize, or burn (laughs). Incidentally, he phoned me last night and said, “Sit on the banks of the great river, I read a young author and I think that this is literature of another era. I love it madly, but I’m fighting the urge to throw the book into the river.”
If a book evokes such strong negative emotions, is it good? Or are there any writer-reader conventions, which, from your point of view, is not necessary to break?
Now quite a lot of disorders and is not written conventions. But the experiment of the early twentieth century was not weaker. He remained in the history of literature, but did not fill all the space. Were not all write like Khlebnikov or Vasily Rozanov, Remizov, Platonov. Talent, talent, special author’s language get out of the number, and maybe then, too, there were attempts of emotional influence and pressure. And it’s not always welcome.
When I see that is a technique invented specifically move to me to enslave, hypnotize, or cause annoyance, — this book makes me want to postpone, it wants to isolate itself.
And if you move from literature to cinema? Trier, from your point of view, what kind of provocateur — natural or artificial? In Cannes recently, with his show crawled out.
it seems to Me that to provoke you to almost anything, but you need to understand that the reaction can be cared out of the room. We see it in the theatre: the audience go, because it is boring and because of the provocation. Because it hurts, because that’s a shame. And then do not forget that that a person can take alone with his computer screen, he’s not always willing to make public in the auditorium. Could you not just one, or you can be friends in the hall and watch your reaction. Here are entering other public mechanisms. With the book in this sense is easier — it read one-on-one with the text. You can close it, to defer, to get it again.
we all Have different mentality, different Hobbies, weakness. The authors sometimes find a certain group that needs it. There are no universal mechanisms of provocation. Even the Bible is not universal, because not all people on Earth, it is a sacred book. And the novel “War and peace” is not universal because someone prefers “the Brothers Karamazov”, and someone James Joyce. But such experiments have not been conducted would, if it had not found a mass public response.
Everyone has a right to exist, in addition, which violates written rules of morality.
But works of art often deliberately violate them. Is art making? Traumatic? Heals?
It was shocking, traumatizing, but probably for people burdened with some serious complexes, it can be release negative emotions, fears and phobias. Like the poison of a serpent: it can be fatal, and can be part of medications. There are people with different psychological types. For a healthy person is not necessary and is traumatic. I have my mind of such a guard and look only out of professional necessity.
so look von Trier for yourself you won’t?
(laughs). Definitely. But I know of people that this helps to cope with their complicated psyche. And for which such art is created. Undoubtedly, the same Lars von Trier — a man with a complex mind, and it is, of course, welcome and shocking form of expression. But if he didn’t have it in the subconscious, it is highly unlikely that it is possible artificially to produce. Yes, people can leave the room, but some remains. Everyone has their own hell of what is permitted. For me, quite conservative in their preferences of the person, this trait is pretty close.