That was a Soviet residence permit? It seems that the Russians have almost forgotten what rights were given and what was different from modern registration at the place of residence. “the Tape.ru” describes the history and fact of registration, and also about how the scams for her sake entered into fictitious marriages.
Mom met dad at the Bolshoi theatre. Two failed marriages, disintegrated completely stupid, as she admitted then, reason convinced her that decent men should look in the appropriate place. Mom was 35, she was not, and time was running out. And so it happened that Yuri Karpov was, from her point of view, a worthy candidate for the role of the third husband.
the Confused one: he was registered not in Moscow, and in Moscow, where he worked on “Star”. This was especially worried about my mother’s parents. But I decided that those fears are silly, especially that Yuri had a decent profession — engineer. My mother was a one-room apartment in Moscow, and after the wedding my husband was prescribed it. So Yuri appeared a Moscow residence permit.
Further events developed very quickly. As soon as mom got pregnant, an engineer from Moscow began to behave provocatively disgusting. Not been home all day, was rude, argued with my mother’s parents. Finally, the day came when it became clear: divorce is inevitable, moreover — it fits perfectly into the plans of Yuri.
Here he turned in full: her claim to the Moscow apartment, which had been prescribed. Cottage, land for which was received from the factory, but all the buildings were made with the money of his wife’s parents. Even on a good library that mom collected over the years. Fortunately, the library — the only thing he managed to seize, and from his apartment by the court decision was successfully written.
But since mom didn’t believe anyone. Did not marry and did not enter into a new relationship, completely devoted to work, while the younger son sat with his grandfather and grandmother at home. Bulgakov’s Woland said that Muscovites ruined the housing problem. That is certainly true. And registration as an integral part of this question, mutilated their souls.
the Soviet system of internal passports was introduced by the decree of the Council of people’s Commissars on December 27, 1932. It was a logical continuation of practices limitation of mobility that existed in the late 1920-ies. Included in their “Golden years” of Stalin’s regime only cemented them. Passport, designed to establish the identity of the citizen, his nationality, whether he is married, and, of course, where it is established, quickly became the main instrument of social, political and economic control of the population.
According to the warrant, the certification was subject to a residents of cities, towns, regional centers, workers of machine and tractor stations, the people living in the 100-kilometer zone close to large settlements, and farmers. The inhabitants of the predominantly rural areas were excluded from the system — that is, the peasants, nomads, minorities remained without a passport. And this primarily meant that they have no right to live in “sensitive” areas — those whose citizens without exception had this document and residence permit.
the Passport was issued for three years anyone who was 16 years old. The only exception was the military and are temporarily staying in the restricted area, the citizens of priemnyh. Now the passport is the only document confirming the identity of its bearer. He was obliged within 24 hours from the moment of arrival in another city different from the place of his residence, to register their place of residence to present it when applying for a job, or at the request of a police officer.
obtain a permanent passport cost three rubles, time, the ruble, and for living without or with invalid passport relied a penalty of 100 rubles.
According to the official wording, the passport system was introduced to obtain accurate statistics about the population of the country, and also to promptly deported from the territories of sensitive parasites, kulaks, criminals and other antisocial elements. And the regime was strict — the visitor had to carry documents proving the purpose of visit (business trip, anniversary and so on). If at the police station he was refused registration, he had to leave town within 24 hours. For repeated violation of this kind was supposed to six months in a labor camp.
In 1935, the period of validity of passports was extended to five years, and in 1937 began to demand obligatory two pictures. By the way, because usually no one wonders why. Of course, now, when there are scanners and copiers and all information is stored in digital databases, it is purely a ritual. But in those years one of the pictures was placed in the passport, and the other one went to archive of the NKVD — for possible follow-up investigative activities.
Interestingly, in 1934-1935 passed the certification of livestock and, in particular, horses. The state fought against the illegal slaughter and therefore sought to put on record every animal. Ironically, the villagers represented to the authorities less valuable. And why should the farmer passport? According to the decree of 1935 he still was tied to his farm.
In the 40-ies of the passport system is toughened. In the legislation there was a clause according to which persons with mental illness had the right to a passport, and those with whom he was, were obliged to register their stay at the police station regardless of which territory they were operational or not.
All these rules prevailed until Stalin’s death in 1953. Immediately after this was issued a new resolution that led the passport system to a more modern look. For example, a passport was issued for five years for 16-20-year-olds on the ten, those aged 20-40 years, and after 40 became indefinite. Registration can now go live in the restricted area already not three, but six months without renewal. Moreover, villagers and farmers were allowed to visit them for up to 30 days, with appropriate help from the village Council. It was made and other indulgences, which marked the beginning of the Khrushchev thaw.
the Last major changes were made in the passport system in 1974 when the state ordered all its citizens to have passports, including those who previously lived in priemnyh territories. In fact, this should have been done long ago and urbanization was in full swing, the rural population is somehow reduced, and make sense of the residents privileged class was no. Gone is the need for various certificates and registration by place of residence — now the passport was all one, for life, in which 25 and 40 years was just placed a new picture.
of Course, the most important stamp in my Soviet passport had a stamp of registration. And get a Moscow residence permit was a matter of very complex. First of all, it should be understood that practically the entire Soviet housing was owned by the state, which was responsible for the construction of real estate and distribution of housing among citizens.
Which meant a residence for the Soviet person? First of all, she testified about how he, the particular Ivan Ivanov has the right to live in a specific apartment at a certain address. And this does not mean that the apartment belonged to him — he just lived in it because the state gave him the right to do it. He moved into a new apartment on a warrant obtained in the local Executive Committee, a distinguished living space company, where he worked as a citizen.
Since private entrepreneurship was prohibited in the USSR, it was impossible legally to sell the apartment, but, formally, even to sell to another person a book that is their own to profit through the sale of the property. Of course, the little things the government does not pay attention, but the essence of Soviet legislation was precisely such.
Apartments — is another matter. First, as mentioned above, they were owned by the state and not from any side, could not belong to the individual. Second, the registration itself worked as the most important factor limiting the mobility of the Soviet man, and give him the right to voluntarily dispose of the fact a place to live, would be contrary to her meaning.
Therefore, the only legal way to change the place of residence was sharing an apartment — sometimes for a fee. Moreover, the Supplement most often was “black”, that is cash in the hands of one of the parties to the transaction. Here’s one way of getting a new residence.
But here there was a lot of problems. The chance to exchange the apartment in the same Voronezh apartment for about the same square in Moscow was miserable — if it is not interfered with any of the Moscow state enterprise or firm.
In his work on Soviet housing, the historian Henry Morton gave the following story, which he told personally. In Moscow family, consisting of wife, husband and their three year old son there was a misfortune: the wife died in a car accident, leaving her husband with one child. The parents of a widower, who lived in Vladimir two-room apartment, wanted to move to the capital to help her son care for her grandson at this difficult time.
Many months grandfather tried to arrange the exchange of apartments in Moscow. Finally he, being a high ranking officer of the Soviet army, tried to use his connections in Moscow to the military. This enterprise was crowned with success, but they had to change one after the other five apartments in different cities nearer to the capital, to finally get a Moscow residence permit and to move into a Moscow apartment.
there was, however, another possibility is to get a flat in Moscow, if you dismiss bribe the government official and personal contacts in government that are actively exploited by marriage cheaters — when a young family gathered on the living space of one of the spouses, the second was able to register her. And who doesn’t want to get a Moscow or Leningrad residence permit when you have, say, Vologda? And then you can divorce, and living space divided by the court. In fact, the registration you have one, you need somewhere to live once the marriage didn’t work out. That is a victim of such scams became the wife of Yuri Karpov.
not to be unfounded, let’s see how it wrote the Soviet press. For example, here the material is “Marriage scams” from magazine “Soviet militia” for 1990. “Citizen Nilov proposed to register marriage with him. I agreed. We agreed on a price. He gave me 10 thousand rubles. He needed only a residence permit”, — starts the note with reference to the testimony of some Komarova. Further, the original text perfectly reveals the essence of the phenomenon:
unfortunately, this phenomenon is very common. In the courts there is a category of annulment. Get acquainted with such Affairs, and I see a crook and crooks, did not disdain to profit at the expense of others on the most sacred human feelings. All the baseness in the fact that one party really is in love, trust, hopes to start a family. Another one motive — to satisfy their interests.
widespread this kind of marriage fraud as the registration of marriage to obtain a residence permit. The crook has registered on the square “beloved wife” (or waiting for conditions to improve), dissolves the marriage, imposes a lawsuit on the division of the area, often disrupting the preliminary agreement.
In Perovsky narsud of the city of Moscow had a chance to study an unusual case. Marriage scams were made by the couple.
After the divorce, they sold the house. Came from Central Asia to Moscow. Stayed in a private Studio apartment, which they rented relatives. As such the family is not disintegrated. Peace and love, it’s preserved. But decided in that whatever was to have a Metropolitan residence. Each of them entered into a sham marriage. The cost of the marriage — contract. Ex-wife new husband offers eight and ex-husband new wife is ten thousand.
Swindler was able to purchase and registration, and housing, making the exchange surcharge. But how much rope to be twisted — will end. Catching the desire of the speculator in violation of an agreement to chop off part of the living area, the new spouse filed a claim in court about recognition of the marriage invalid. The district attorney sent a confession to the crime.
the Scam failed. A marriage is annulled, the speculator is subject to discharge and eviction from occupied living space. In the presence of forgery or any other fraud, it is possible to and application of the criminal law.
* * *
Fear and awe in front of the residence did not disappear, they live in the minds of the inhabitants of large Russian cities so far. These feelings are completely irrational. It is useless to explain to fellow citizens, a registration at the place of residence does not give any rights to the dwelling and propiska was abolished in the early 1990-ies. So that the owner has voluntarily issued a share in the apartment on non-resident tenant must be something out of the ordinary.
the Root of these fears is clear: now, when most of the living space has a private owner, privatized, registration at the place of residence has a notification character: here’s something resides in this city at the specified address. The Soviet propiska, in the absence of private ownership of the apartment, really meant that the citizen has the right to live in this room and was the only confirmation of this right. But the situation repeats itself in many families from year to year: son and your girl from? From Omsk? All clear! Her Moscow registration needed!