Publishing house “Science”, which in 2027 to mark its tercentenary, facing bankruptcy and closure. Produced once the largest of its kind enterprise in academic journals transferred to a company owned by an American company. Five hundred scientific editors are forced to find a new job. At stake is the fate of real estate publishers, the cadastral value of which is about six billion rubles. “the Tape.ru” I tried to understand the situation and its consequences.
the building of the publishing house “Science” on Union street you can make movies and TV shows, which takes place in the late Soviet era. There remained all appropriate surroundings, until the plates on the offices. Although on the desktop the editors still are modern computers.
the Threat of bankruptcy and closure have not affected the atmosphere of the library or academic, if you want silence. Alarm read only in the eyes of the senior staff decided that the publisher still should not die in silence.
for nearly three centuries, the publishing house “Science” was an integral part of Russian Academy of Sciences. Striving for consistency and integrity of scientists such as Nikolai Vavilov in the last century, tried to organize related with scientific publications of the institution in accordance with the spirit of socialism that aspires to communism. Thus was created a single three-part system — a powerful enterprise “Science”, including the printing, publishing and book stores (the famous “Akademkniga”). Wikipedia reports that as of 1982 “Science” was the world’s largest scientific publisher. Actually, this Soviet machine, or “mammoth,” as it is lovingly called by the staff somehow managed to work out still, despite all the reform activity of the last quarter century in the Academy.
the publisher believe that the “Science” torpedoed not a new socio-economic reality of the Russian and disputed the idea that publishing the lesson of the RAS profile. This idea is strengthened in the minds and imprinted on paper: with the emergence of FANO (Federal Agency of scientific organizations) “Science” came under its jurisdiction and became the Federal state unitary enterprise.
“There [FANO] the publisher explained that it needed to make money: “Make detectives, traffic office,” says the Deputy Director of publishing house “Nauka” Oleg Vavilov, sitting in a conference room by smell and appearance, reminiscent of the old reading room of the library. — Any Federal state unitary enterprise, like a sheep, must give the wool.”
After the expulsion of the “mammoth” wounds began to seek services on the market, and already this action, according to experts, looked like a caricature. Moreover, the order went through auction, where the winner is the one who will offer less, not a person corresponding to the qualification requirements. Roughly speaking, any conditional FE “Petrov” could claim on the publication of scientific academic journals.
“But when this one publishing package consisted of 140 items of academic journals, there was no such “Petrov”, ready to do it. And even MAIK [about it will be discussed below] is not solved,” — said Vavilov. Because, in addition to such magazines as “Automatics and telemechanics”, on which three people work, there are “Questions of philosophy”, where editorial staff is 16 people, and how to make it profitable despite the fact that the magazine subscription is low and in English it is not translated?”
Public spending, according to the Deputy head of “Science” was only 50 percent of budget journals, and the rest is publishing by hook or by crook I had to get. But “mammoth” refused to go the route of increasing efficiency by selling coats in the occupied areas and other such ploys, and took the position of classic proud of the Russian nobility of the XIX century, that is simply began to accumulate debts. And gathered them about 500 million rubles.
“Funny thing, that’s the only content revisions (frankly miserable) in the first half of 2018 at a cost to the publisher in 215 million rubles, and have yet to mark up and print magazines, writes on his page on Facebook Director adviser of “Science” Boris Kupriyanov. Run the auction listed only 130 million. 85 million the publishing house was somewhere to take itself.”
In Soviet times to work in the publishing house “Science” was a matter of honor and best not only in material but also in moral terms. After the restructuring, the revenue and social welfare editors, the fate of which is now in question, began to dwindle. The result is only one spirituality, but rather a proud officer in wounds.
it along with the ability to do what you love in a stylish building of the legendary Soviet publication has allowed “Science,” not to worry about staff turnover.
“We recently celebrated the 60-anniversary of employment of one of our colleagues — boasted Vavilov, but then sadly he added: — Now most of the staff of the publishing house, namely 500 people who were engaged in scientific journals, will now not destiny. These people either need to go to the company that won the auction, or somewhere else. Contain the editors we have no money”.
Professional science editor and it’s not just the Vavilov — the man is unique. He must know any there dynamics, for example, on the one hand, and on the other — to possess the skill of journalistic presentation, should identify the main idea of the authors, because a good scientist is not always a good “orator” in writing.
“Such professionals no cooking, and with those salaries, which in this area is, no one ever breaks. You need to learn for a long time, the qualifications should be high, but the real reward for the work people get miserable,” — said the Deputy Director of the publishing house.
However, the partners of “Science”, including the RAS, the actual employees which are these editors, there is a perception that this work is insignificant and irrelevant to scientific has. And, therefore, cannot be changed and legal aspects in the form of copyright.
But talking about it for the eyes, because in the daily work of editorial staff of scientific journals for many years working hand in hand with scientists as assistants, many friendship, and the authors share their concern about the future of publishing, which will die because of a stubborn unwillingness to become commercial. Even collecting signatures, but the good of it yet.
in the Summer of 1992, the Presidium of the RAS decided in which it was stated that the Academy of Sciences does not have enough funds to develop the scientific publication of journals and even more to sell them abroad. For this purpose created Russian-the American International academic publishing company “Nauka/Interperiodica” (mamc), which transferred the rights to distribution of all Russian scientific journals outside the country.
it is Noteworthy that about six months before he died British businessman Robert Maxwell, who was endowed with the same exclusive right during the Soviet era. The success story of this man began with the idea to sell the German edition of prisoners of the Nazis who were in the UK. For scientific publication it came from after helped Springer (also had German roots) to sell back issues of journals in the same Albion. Then Maxwell for some time organized with this now one of the world’s largest scholarly publishers, the joint venture.
Many years later, in 1992, Kommersant was named the new Maxwell American company Pleiades Publishing Shustorovich Alexander, the son of a Soviet scientist, who moved with his family to the States in the years of the cold war. Firm along with the Russian Academy of Sciences and the publishing house “Science” was a co-founder of the IAPC. According to some experts, Shustorovich exercises today the actual leadership of this seems to be a joint venture.
the Main achievement of the Pleiades, which the company is so appreciated in Russian Academy of Sciences, has a contract with Springer for distribution of a package of nine dozen scientific journals, most of which are foreign publishers allegedly do not particularly need.
According to adviser to the Director of the “Science” Boris Kupriyanov, MAIK was created “for the withdrawal from the jurisdiction of the state of scientific articles of Russian scientists and print magazines ran abroad.” The company had in the future completely replace “Science”, however, due to the transfer of powers was only the conclusion the most “expensive pieces” related to the implementation of Russian journals abroad.
Some time “Science” and MAIK headed by one man — the historian Vladimir Vassiliev. During this period, the Russian-American company began to pick up not only work on creating English versions of journals, but also profit from the production of publications for the Russian market. Their layout, but rather the staff and equipment was, according to the source “Tape.ru”, transferred from the publishing house “Science” in MAIK. “Science” to continue the magazine, you had to pay for the layout of the IAPC, but not enough money and increased the debt of 36 million rubles.
“the head of the organizations could always agree with himself. In the 90s the printing house “Science” worked in three shifts and was hardly unprofitable,” — said Kupriyanov.
Today, the leadership of the “Science” on the one hand and MAIK from Pleiades Publishing, on the other are in a state of open hostility. The events of the past two decades, they look very different.
“This transfer occurred without a tender, deadline constraints, and it was just about all Russian scientific journals: past and future”, — says the admission Pleiades Publishing to the spread of domestic publications abroad Vavilov.
“All the magazines right to publish which has received the Pleiades, he had a tough competition with other international publishers, primarily due to better conditions,” says lunge, the CEO MAIK Victor Valyaev.
“When the question arose about the participation of “Science” in the auctions for the second half of 2018 and MAIK decided to take them for themselves — they just came in and said, “Colleagues, or you do not participate in the competition, or we carry these securities on bankruptcy!””, — continues the Deputy Director.
“currently, MAIK won in court two lawsuits to recover the debt from the publishing house “Science” for a total sum about 30 million roubles. Notice that this amount is less than 7 percent of the total debt of the Federal state unitary enterprise, and certainly is not the cause of its possible bankruptcy. Moreover, a few weeks ago, we suspended the obtained writs against Federal state unitary enterprise, — retorted his opponent. — As far as we know, the main debts before the Federal budget. A decision about a possible bankruptcy should take FANO.”
“Science”, in turn, tried to get a court eviction MAIK from their areas. Disputes between related enterprises has reached abroad.
“the Previous leadership [“Science”] saw that most of the money in magazines is not the money that makes the Academy of Sciences in their publication, because it doesn’t cover even 50 percent of the costs, and not the Russian membership, and the money received when distributing English versions of the contract with Springer. Moreover, this contract is opaque to the publishers, — says Oleg Vavilov. — Reliable reports, no one has ever seen. And here is the previous head of the publishing house “Nauka” Sergey Paladin sent an open letter to Springer last summer. Like, colleagues, and on what basis do you distribute these publications, if right-holders are we — the publishing house “Science”? We have no legal contract with MAIK and Pleiades. We can appeal to an international court and put your business at risk.”
Springer appealed to Shusterovich with the proposal in some way to settle this question. “And here we are at the same “resolution”. He decided to take control of the entire chain — “from the wellhead to the gas station””.
IAPC reminded that at the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union the situation with the publication of Soviet scientific periodicals abroad was extremely difficult. Magazines could go, for example, with a delay from one year to four years.
“there Was a feeling that all the logs will be closed. No one except the Pleiades, did not want to publish them, especially in a package, i.e. together with “weak” magazines as this would Academy, says Valyaev. — It was a time when the market of Russian scientific journals have experienced a disaster. It was then that the company Pleiades came to this market, and in that time we have done what people thought impossible, they began to do simultaneous translation of Russian scientific journals that were not previously translated into English, as well as to pay for the work of the authors and editors of magazines.”
Last summer, the Presidium of the RAS took a Solomonic decision. “They smashed all the logs into five sections. Four of them — science. There, coincidentally, included all publications that are translated into English and have value abroad, — says Oleg Vavilov. — And the fifth section it is “ghetto”, which includes “Questions of philosophy”, “Russian literature”, “history of the Middle ages”, “Slavic studies”, agricultural magazines. They are the most expensive, by the way”.
the auction was Held. According to the results, four pack editions took the company “Akademkniga”, wholly owned by the company Pleiades. Bush and the rest of the 49 journals took OOO “Integration of Science and education” — a company affiliated with the State academic University of humanitarian science (GAUGN).
“Science” for the second half of 2018 got no academic journals. This means and possible death of the book editions. “Most of the books published by publishing house “Science” is not a commercially profitable — said Vavilov. For example, we have “Eastern literature”, there are books in which the translation is prepared over ten years — for example, “the Upanishads”. How much it should cost in the store, so we paid for its production?”
the Book edition was tied to the log, as compensated for their costs at their expense. Now, perhaps, their work will also stand.
“Books generally are not interested in wounds, — has explained “the Tape.ru” Boris Kupriyanov. — President of the RAS does not understand the difference between the work of printing and publishing and publicly reported. For the layman it is not a sin to be confused, but Mr. Sergeyev…”
the Publishing house “Science” is not only five hundred poor but proud editors, but also solid properties.
“the Most expensive piece of the property pie is printing in Stupinskom lane: Tipografiya №2, RAS, — says Oleg Vavilov — where the total area is 18 thousand square meters. The complex of buildings near Smolensk square. With the surrounding area. Cadastral valuation of two billion rubles, and the market price…”
there is a huge complex that “Science” inherited from the industrial publishing complex of VINITI. The company is located in the heart of the city Lyubertsy. This four acres of land five kilometers from the Moscow ring road.
There are still such gems as the building in Muranowska lane, near the Park “Muzeon”: a four-storey mansion and 30 acres of land. Except for Moscow and the region, “Science” is real estate in Saint-Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Makhachkala, where there are branches of the company.
the Cadastral valuation of the entire property complex FGUP around six billion rubles.
it is Noteworthy that the neighbors of the organization, implying that this property of “Science”, in fact, a special law has not. “However, the leadership of the Federal state unitary enterprise Publishing house “Science” somehow convinces himself that the building and the entire property complex belongs not to the Russian Federation, and to them personally, and that they can take Federal government property to the Federal state institution at market prices, and de facto two times above the market!” — outraged rector of the state academic University for Humanities Denis Fomin-Nilov in response to reply Kupriyanova that GAUGN not paying a penny for rent of the publisher.
“it is likely that the value of square meters outweigh the value of hundreds of thousands of published books, group editors and the future of the Russian state scientific publishing, — said Kupriyanov. And my fears are confirmed. Krasnoyarsk scientific center of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences has already leased the space of the Krasnoyarsk store. Now in Krasnoyarsk there will be no “Academkniga”… But in Moscow housing and municipal management of the Russian Academy of Sciences demanded to clean the room store “Akademkniga” on Vavilov street until June 15. Director of housing services, RAS says that the store “Akademkniga” illegally occupies the premises! Unlawfully is 60 years old (7 may 1958) is an area specially designated for the bookstore of the Academy of Sciences!”
In the form in which it exists now, the business of “Science” does not suit anyone, including the leadership of the publishing house, but to solve the problem in a constructive manner authorized persons are not in a hurry.
“the Leadership, came in “Science” last fall, requested the leadership of FANO, agreeing to the idea in the Academy, some of ineffectively used buildings put up for sale to repay debts to the tax and to opportunity for development to purchase office equipment, supply of modern printing equipment, to be able to attract higher paid professionals to re-tool layout, — said Vavilov. — All this could be under the control of the government, but, unfortunately, the decision on the restructuring of publishing houses not yet decided.”
Now any company that is in the hands of the writ may apply to the court for recognition of the company bankrupt. This can happen at any time.
“the Auction was won by the company “Akademkniga”. (The brand, incidentally, is owned by the publishing house “Science”.) It now has six employees. They will produce 93 scientific journal? Began to actively psychological pressure on our editors, so they handed over all materials to them, — complains Director of “Science.” But our staff there do not take the state — they offer cooperation on civil contract”.
Vavilov’s Opponents see the future of akademizdat in a more positive light. “Considering the participation of the RAS in the auctions for the provision of services for publishing magazines, we have seen its role as the General contractor: on the editorial services we offer to conclude under the terms of the auction contract with the publishing house “Science” in the state which are editorial staff, — said the representative Pleiades Publishing. Part of the revisions will remain in the institutions that are founders of the journals, and we conclude with them the relevant contracts for provision of editorial services. The part of the employees of revisions if desired, can proceed in IKTS “Akademkniga””.
But, in the opinion of management of “Science,” the fact that academic journals are under the control of Shustorovich, carries risks to the sovereignty of scientific activity in Russia.
“Suppose scientists did a study on shelf of the Russian Federation. They prepare an article for the magazine — said Vavilov. — Rights to publish these materials, tables, photos under the contract are transferred to the publisher. Previously, the contract concluded with the publishing house was there. Now RAS instructs the chief editors of the journals to do it by proxy from the Academy, but all contracts will be in private hands. Now there is a specific businessman, but there may be other interested parties in America that had access to all of the above materials, including personal information about the scientists. There’s also the contract specifies everything from passport data to the mobile phone with home address. Now it is stored here in Kaluga, and then somewhere in the US?”
in addition, the scientists, according to the current order, should be held accountable for the resulting grants is scientific publications. Boris Kupriyanov adds: “it’s Amazing how the combination of the head of officials two conflicting discourse. One hand writes: “We are a sovereign country! America we can not decree! Antisanktsii!” and the other endorses the control of a private American offshore companies on the Russian science”.
the wounds, however, at different venues has repeatedly affirmed that the copyright and all control over academic publications, published abroad, is completely under the control of the Academy and not worry.
In the Pleiades say that only today they have the experience and the opportunity to make publishing Russian magazines profitable, as it was before made with their English versions.
“But this will only be possible after significant investment and a long period of time. No one except the Pleiades, not even thinking to take care of it and not willing to risk the investment. Especially against the strongest outflow of the best articles from Russia (almost 60 percent) and a sharp fall in the quality and quantity of articles as a whole… the government is clearly not prepared to subsidize this process, especially in such a wretched and obsolete form,” — said in an American company.