the Burning or burial alive, crucifixion, quartering, zamurovannye, the wheel — what are the only methods of execution were not used in the world! Historically, it was an extremely simple way to get revenge or to deal with criminals and undesirables. The death penalty for various breaches of the law apply to this day and its modern types, perhaps, be considered almost a humane injection, firing squad, hanging, electric chair, and beheading. “the Tape.ru” talks about the countries in which death sentences are regularly put in execution.
Countries that continue to impose the death penalty, are in an absolute minority in 2017 such sentences resulted in the execution of only 23 States. In 106 countries abolished the death penalty in General, in dozens of States, the possibility of such a sentence legally retain, but in practice not used.
On calculations human rights organization Amnesty International, after a sharp rise in executions in 2015, the indicators back to the middle. In 2017 in the world executed at least 993 people — less than a year earlier (1032). These figures do not include China, they execute more death sentences than in other countries, but the real scale of the executions is unknown, as this information is considered a state secret. However, the classified lists of those executed, not only in China but also in North Korea, in Vietnam (which probably should be in the top five countries where it is more likely the death penalty) and South Sudan.
the Vast majority of known executions — 84 percent — is held in a few countries: Iran, Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Pakistan, and Iran accounts for half. It is worth noting that in 2016, the first in ten years, the United States did not enter the top five, finishing in seventh position. Sixth place was for Egypt. In the list there is only one country in Europe that continues to apply the death penalty: Belarus.
About the modern death penalty more things you can learn by experience of the USA — they are the most open in the world. The authorities publish lists of pending punishment, the reporters follow their stories, shoot them on subjects and write articles, and publicly available information about the past “procedures”.
Now the highest measure is used in 31 States, their laws provide for five different methods. The main method in all regions, lethal injection, other, electric chair, gas, firing squad and hanging — can be used only at the request of prisoners and only in certain territories, and sometimes even only in the case of sentencing before a certain date. For example, the defendant may choose the firing squad in Utah, but only if it condemned before 3 may 2004.
the Execution by hanging or using the gas not used in the U.S. for nearly two decades. The last time gas was used in the spring of 1999 in Arizona, and hanged in Delaware in early 1996 (since then the state declared the death penalty unconstitutional, all prisoners now simply serving a life sentence). Compared to this the electric chair the offender imprisoned as recently as 2013, and shot a little earlier — in 2010. a Selection of unusual methods of execution, prisoners justify including a desire to draw attention to this practice in General or your specific case, if considered unjust condemnation.
Sentenced to await his day in jail. Date procedure is to be stored — this makes the court after consideration of the appeal. A few days before the execution the convict is transferred to a special chamber. It should not be in possession of nothing illegal, it has taken away the old clothes give new, conducting a full medical examination. On the last day he is entitled to meet with the family.
There is also the tradition of the last meal: the condemned can choose any sort of food — though usually with restrictions on price. This ritual hold in all States, except Texas, where it was cancelled in 2011. In the unusual number of orders for the last supper was, for example, one olive, 12 bars of chocolate and ice cream or “Justice, equality and peace in the world”.
In the room for the execution of a convicted lead ten minutes before the procedure. There it is fixed in the prone position and give the right to the last word, and then do a lethal injection. In the room there is usually a phone in any moment, the court may interrupt the procedure. Often present at the execution witnesses — journalists, friends and family members of the convicted person.
On 1 July 2017 in the USA executions expect 2817 people, including 53 women. However, over the last four decades resulted in the execution in half the sentences, and 155 people have been able to prove his innocence and was released. In General in America, began to give the highest measure much smaller number of criminals: in 1998 there were 295 people, and in 2017-m — 39.
Often the death row delayed for years the convicts spend in prison for more than a decade; about 40 percent of death row waiting for execution for two decades.
a Similar situation with the expectation observed in Japan. However, here it is considered a rather positive thing: the authorities have time to fully understand the business, and the number of incorrect sentences is minimized. For example, preparation for the execution of members of a religious sect “AUM Shinrikyo”, the perpetrators of the attack in the Tokyo subway in 1995 — more than 20 years ago, started in March 2018, after in January of this year, the Supreme court put the point in the proceedings, rejecting the latest appeal against the sentence of one of the members of the organization.
Penalty in Japan is only one way — by hanging. For the most part to such as sentence people who have committed mass murder. Prisoners see in solitary confinement, twice a week they are allowed training, visits with the family occur very rarely.
Usually the date of the procedure is kept secret from the prisoner and his family. People can learn about it on the morning of the appointed day and his relatives — after the execution of the sentence. Before the death of the offender, as in the United States, allowed last time to eat and chat with the priest.
How, exactly, are executions in Japan, has long been unknown, but in 2010 reporters showed a special room in a prison in Tokyo.
Sentenced first lead into a room where they can see the statue of Kannon is the goddess of mercy. This is one of the last persons who see the prisoner in the room with the hatch in the floor of his store with a blindfold on. There it put on the loop, the red marks on the floor indicate where he should stand. The hatch under his feet opens from the next room: three buttons on the wall to simultaneously press three people is done to ensure that they did not know exactly who pressed the most.
Despite the openness of the data, the US and Japan is still not the main perpetrators of the death penalty, and of the countries occupying the first places, the information often comes from anonymous witnesses. A very unusual system, for example, exists in China.
Previously, there mainly executed by firing squad. At the command of the soldiers shot the convict in the head, if the person did not die at once — for example, he has seizures — he fired again. In 1996 it was legalized execution by lethal injection. The number of executions has declined steadily, while in 2009 the Supreme people’s court has not rendered a decision on the dissolution of the death squads: an injection recognized more humane and cheap way.
what is the singularity? In China, it appears, exist special vans for executions. Externally, the car looks like a COP, but inside, he is more of an operating room. The convict slid inside, fixed on a special stretcher and doing a lethal injection. All this happens under surveillance and under strict rules.
rumor has it that after the executions the prisoners become organ donors. In 2006, Ministry of health the country has officially banned the sale of organs, however, it is believed that this order is not respected. Activists argue that it is impossible to verify: the body is quickly cremated after the execution.
Officials believe that the original vehicles are a civilised alternative to traditional firing squad. Vans are also saving: no need to build special facilities for executions. In addition, inmates can be executed on the spot of prestupleniya, where they broke the law. However, according to some, because of the high cost of service vans for executions of their number has recently reduced.
Chinese convicted in average waiting for punishment about 50 days. In some cases, the procedure specifically set aside to coincide with a specific date, or the decision, on the contrary, imposed a very fast and revealing. For example, the execution of those convicted of drug trafficking can be held in the international day against drug abuse. Capital punishment in China provides approximately fifty different crimes.
within five years in China once a week came out TV show called “Interviews before execution” which asked questions sentenced criminals. The authors of the program said their goal is to warn fellow citizens. In General, however, the characters show was convicted of murder, and their nominations were required to comply with the court.
With all the closure information on those executed in China, the situation in Iran and Saudi Arabia, perhaps even worse. In occupying the third place in the number of executions in Saudi Arabia sentenced beheaded, and their bodies often hang out for everyone to see. Some executions take place publicly, as a warning to others. Many prisoners claimed that they were under pre-trial detention longer than usual, talked about the torture to force them to confess to crimes they did not commit.
At the same time, in Saudi Arabia the death sentence may be revoked if: there exists a practice of DII. The family may agree to cancel the execution in exchange for a cash payment. The decision is often not disclosed until the last second and declared, when the perpetrator has brought to the scaffold. In this case, the matter is postponed for three months — during this time the relatives have to collect the required amount. Usually there are negotiators that require astronomical amounts of money: the practice turned into a profitable business.
the Family starts raising money, trying to convince wealthy and influential people to donate money. Legislation prohibits the use of social networks and the media, but few people stop. In 2011 Royal decree established the maximum size of DII — about 100 thousand euros, but few follow it, because such decrees are not binding. Known cases, when the size of the ransom for the life of the convict amounted to 15 million euros.
If the offender is pardoned, he is not exempt from liability completely: the Supreme court in 2016 ruled that the convicted of murder must serve at least five-year prison term.
the Practice of paying money exists in other countries, including in Iran: family of the convicted person can pay the relatives of the victim, then the death penalty will be replaced with imprisonment.
Iran is located on the second line by the number of perfect executions: in 2017 the sentence executed in respect of the 507 people.
Executions in Iran are usually hosts early in the morning, in the presence of the families of the victims and the condemned. Sentenced to hang, embossing from under the feet of the bench, sometimes it is done with the help of a crane. The second method is chosen for public executions.
In Iran, as in Saudi Arabia, prisoners also complain of torture and beatings for confessions. They describe small cameras on three prisoners, the lack of space for walks and oppressive atmosphere. In addition, visits with family is very limited: only 20 minutes once in 45 days.
And in Egypt, which in recent years surpassed the United States in the number of death sentences at the end of the 2017 executed every Tuesday. In this day of the week from December to early March was executed at least 23 people. Relatives of prisoners say that those are contained in the rooms, like the crypts: 1.5 to 3 meters under the ground, with a small window, instead of the toilet — bucket. In addition, they are not provided appropriate medical assistance.
Most of those executed in 2017, was convicted of terrorism and a coup attempt. In General, the civil and military courts of Egypt for the year was sentenced to death more than 330 people, many of the processes carried out in secret.
In the modern world, more and more countries abolition of the death penalty or refrain from it, since the society grows a negative attitude towards capital punishment. In particular, in the US, almost caught up the number of speakers for and against: 49 to 42 percent. Similar to the performance observed the last time 50 years ago.
in addition, more and more problems in the United States occurs with substances for injection. In the States trying to come up with new ways among the latest proposals is execution with the use of nitrogen, which so far was not used anywhere. The questions raised and stated painless and humane injection: repeatedly penalty turns into torture, including because of the poor quality of components for “lethal cocktail.”
Long delay with the performance also call into question the humanity of the sentence: is it possible that people are punished twice — by the sentence, and prolonged solitary confinement? Even in countries not applying the death penalty for many years, is sentenced to it, which are under the fear of the possible return of this punishment. As a result, prisoners appear psychological and even mental problems.
However, this is true for executing sentences. As told Indonesian police, who worked in the firing squad, pull the trigger — the easiest part of this service. The worse is to jailers, who communicate with the prisoners, and then personally send them to the penalty. However, psychological assistance and special trainings conducted for the members of the firing squad. The number of executions carried out by them is also limited.
Carrying out death penalty is an extremely complex and contradictory process. And over the years, there are fewer countries willing to kill its own citizens.