For at least two centuries of development of the advertising industry in its modern sense (not to mention existed at all times a market barkers and skillful charlatans) it has achieved impressive success. One of them is the creation and maintenance of subcultures, which sell everything from perfume to lifestyle. “the Tape.ru” versed in the phenomenon of iconic characters as a marketing strategy.
for a Long time human society had been strictly class: belonging to the class defined in the first place by right of birth, and level of education and income. Thus in the Ancient world and Middle ages, to education, or to amass the wealth of the people, by birth belonged to the lower class, had virtually no opportunities. Rare exceptions, involving remarkable personal qualities of the helper and extraordinary luck, for example, achieve a high position through supersuccessful religious or military career or through the bed of an influential person — only prove the rule.
belonging to a class determined almost everything: clothing style, level and form of consumption, intellectual queries. Simply put, the man was a nobleman, a priest, a merchant or a farmer, depended on what he eats and drinks, what is in weekdays and holidays, where as fun, in what house he lives, in which the crew goes (if he even has a crew), in what cemetery he was buried and what to put on the grave. Not to say that this state of Affairs is all arranged, but for a long time it had no alternative.
the Era of bourgeois revolutions, fueled by humanistic philosophy of the encyclopedists of the eighteenth century, shook and threw prestavi estates broth. Gradually — at first in Britain and France, then in other European countries and in the United States and later in less developed countries social estates was replaced by belonging to random social groups. They shared in the professional, national, or religious differences and formed a varied collection of subcultures — from giant to tiny. They differ from bars because people arbitrarily, with greater or lesser effort of will and strength, can change one subculture to another.
a Subculture of dandy, perhaps, be called the first “selling” of public design. She was born in Britain in the late XVIII century in the environment of medium and large bureaucracy. This latter circumstance, incidentally, is quite common: officials were active people seeking in class age change their social position for the better by a successful career (for success it was possible to get the order and titles). First dandy is often called the official’s son, a graduate of Oxford George “Beau” Brummel. He was a trendsetter, and what is now called lifestyle.
Brummel set the tone, which was picked up by young loitering nobles, officials and students, and providers Brammel his tailors and shoemakers, manufacturers of pomade and scented water, a hairdresser and furniture — rich with time because they came for my things “like a hunk.” The most insightful of the suppliers realized that this works, and began to engrave on their ad imaginary people, like a real dandy. It went with success. The inimitable dandy in the nineteenth century were few (because they were called inimitable), for example, Lord Byron poet or writer-kicker Oscar Wilde, but imitators of their hundreds, to the great joy of enterprising manufacturers, the owners of the first Department stores and the owners of luxury Atelier.
in women, despite the notorious tyranny of fashion, the estates held longer, until the end of the XIX century, to suffragettes and the struggle for women’s emancipation. It is easy to explain: in young women, usually do not have their own funds, solutions for them have been older, and the eccentricity is nearly one hundred percent probability meant the problems in the marriage market. A separate subculture was, perhaps, only prostitutes and kept woman, but it was a marginal subculture, and use it as a marketing tool wouldn’t no self-respecting trader or perfume. On the contrary, prostitutes are high class, high income tried first to imitate the respectable bourgeois women, and then to become them, married or opening a shop or café.
Perhaps the first female subculture can be considered a so-called tomboys and flappers — girls-boys-inducing and at the same time defenseless children jazz era and the roaring 1920s. Around them immediately began to turn industry, the flagship of which was the Coco Chanel — designer and trendsetter with a fantastic nose for all that can benefit. Flappery-Tomboy — educated girls from wealthy families that provided the material and want to get rid of the obsessive entanglement of the old-fashioned tradition, they wanted freedom to smoke, drink cocktails, dance, swim in the sea (but not in a box-spring baths) and to ski in comfortable clothes.
Chanel gave these girls what they wanted: a Jersey dress and pants, hats, who could not pin it to the hair (in the absence of such — they briefly cut) and “little black dresses”, synthetic (and hence accessible in production), but expensive perfume with an unusual flavor and a personal example of social non-conformism. Vision made Chanel a wealthy woman and an example for many followers.
To the delight of the fashion houses and mass-markety brands, food service establishments and public entertainment venues, a hairdresser and barbershop, private manicure and pedicure, perfume giants and indie brands, subcultures are now a great many. Enough to fit into the ones that become popular, and some profit is secured. However, brands that are not satisfied. They are specially trained and specially employed people create new, sometimes sells mythical imagery and subculture, which is particularly easily and effectively done in the era of the Internet and social networks.
One of the most effective of these constructs, as has been repeatedly noted by researchers (not only fashion experts but also sociologists), is directly connected with Chanel. This is a collective image of French women, more specifically — Parisian women. Forever young, forever free, forever skinny and Pustovalova, mysterious and laconic, independent from anyone or anything: no material from the employer or physically from reality. Optional added takes culottes, a Breton shirt, trench, shoes, ballet flats, a bulky but elegant bag, red lipstick — all depending on the product or service that you want to promote.
Brands that are moving through the virtual Parisian, a lot. Some of them — the most thorough and conscientious, often not French — even invite a real Parisian or at least French women: to keep you honest. So, for example, is not the first mass-markety giant Uniqlo sells loves everything French, Japanese and Chinese clothing, are created, according to representatives of the company, with the personal participation of INES de La Her. Inez — the woman responsible and posing every season in his clothes and in a very Parisian atmosphere.
the French brands and also know their benefits, and even if invited foreign women to be the faces of their collections, these individuals can come out as similar to the stereotypical Parisian as Alexa Chung at Longchamp or Natalie Portman perfume Dior division. Brunette, slender, with the intelligence in the eyes, in a dark dress or a lightweight trench coat… the Rest is easy to imagine: stamps of this kind Internet is rife. Under variantinit sauce sold baguettes and bouquets, hats and holiday packages, services, manicurists and hair stylist. The returns are impressive. During a kickback who will hear the appeals of these French women (all builds, hair colors and skin preferences in food and clothing) to recognize that the Ideal Parisian woman is not there? No one.
Another magic seprodi the image of the Ideal Mother. Pregnant or recently gave birth, especially for the first time, the woman often prone to neurosis, racked with anxiety: everything is okay with the baby, should the level of care she provides for him, will it be possible to maintain attractiveness to a spouse or partner and the desired skill levels for return-to-work.
And then there is mystic a Perfect Mother. She lives in Instagram and commercials, she in designer leggings rolls Jogging designer sport stroller with well-tended child either wears it in a sling design, it elegantly exposes Breasts in a designer top for feeding from the latest collection, or, conversely, separates the healthy malacothamnus the mixture into a designer bottle. I’m sure everyone has seen these mothers many times and anywhere except real life. To become same real mothers spare neither money nor effort, no short sleep time.
About the same pravoobladanie friends have men. Craving for dandyism has not disappeared, but simply elegant business suit very few people are satisfied: for many years he was a strict prescription of the working dress code and many men feel no warmer than Hebe at yesterday’s muster. According to the opinion advanced male audience says that the costume does not reflect individuality. No question: brands invented hipster.
With all responsibility to assert, that man in the weird hat, with a beard or moustaches, lumberjack shirt over a white t-shirt, rolled up pink chinos, and bright green sneakers on his bare feet — is purely a marketing construct, perhaps too bold. It is likely that these types samozarodilsya, as his time as Beau Brummel.
But how many small hairdressing and barbershop, salons of men’s cosmetics shaving small shops of designer clothes has given life to a collective image of the hipster! He sold laptops, scooters, smart watches and even banking services. And with it affiliated music festivals, clubs, open-air, craft Breweries and more metrolinie with the Burger. Don’t you wish that hipster povyvelis, and many other subcultures polimarketing wing.
speaking of Burger. Burgers are eaten not only hipsters. Rapper Timati sold using a consolidated in his own person the image of cool rapper clothes and accessories, and then opened the Burger chain Black Star, a stable, and there are queues of Teens, it is only the sun to warm the streets. Cheap coffee capsules Expressi promoting Agency BMF devised an imaginary rapper and Sprite soda in special limited edition banks is a real rapper Drake. By the way, he recently released some new stuff: his brand OVO has announced another collaboration with Clarks Originals. The rappers provide the profit tattoo parlors and manufacturers of gold dental onlays, hour and jeweller brands. And Kanye West seem to be generally earns on everything it touches.
Finally, probably the most powerful trafficking solidarises with marketing companies gives a figure of an athlete, or (to a lesser extent) athletes. Millions of budgets being developed, millions in profits flow to companies because people are told: you have to play sports to be cool, strong and independent.
What are slogans spoken by the advertising posters of the athletes without fear and without reproach: “Be a man!” (read, athlete man you’re so), “You are what you do”, “Bring your game” and other such! It remains only to run to run to the store for running shoes with the spring heel or a t-shirt with the hygroscopic holes under the arms.
Gorgeous professionally photoshopped body and impressive visual range kills critical, and all of these scout mottos slip easily into the brain, directly in the center, which is responsible for the interaction with the wallet. And real people have their money on the altar of an imaginary athlete (as carried on the altar of an imaginary dandy and the imaginary of frecuency). Really enjoy sport running shoes three years ago, and Muscovite, and a resident of Yekaterinburg is no worse than Parisian women. But no one acknowledges it.