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“If you can’t protect the logo, then create it”

the Arbitration court of Moscow on 11 may ruled to collect from the publishing house “Ventana-Graf”, which is included in the group “Eksmo-AST”, hitherto unknown in cases of this kind the amount of 3.7 billion rubles in the claim of publishing house “Prosveschenie”. The lawyer of the publishing house, partner at Bryan Cave Leighton Paisner (Russia) Llp Elena Trusova told “the Tape.ru” about the paradoxes, perhaps the most notable cases of intellectual property protection in the country.

“Ribbon.ru”: how it all began and how the situation developed around the trademark of “Enlightenment”?

Elena Trusova: it All started with the fact that the publishing house “Ventana-Graf” when you print their literature began to use the designation similar to the point of confusion with the trademarks of the publishing house “Enlightenment” in the form of a stylized colored globe. “Enlightenment” went to court and won the argument by proving admitted “Ventanas-Count” violations and sought compensation for violation of trademark rights in the amount of 3.7 billion rubles. In an effort to avoid paying compensation, the opponent appealed in patent office a statement contesting the legal protection of trademarks “Enlightenment” and filed a lawsuit in the court for intellectual property rights on the recognition of the trademark “Education” act of unfair competition.

What, in your opinion, you want to gain opponents?

Obviously, they want to avoid prosecution and payment of compensation in accordance with the established judicial decision. In my opinion, all their claims are not aimed at the real protection of rights, and to justify their violations. “Ventana-the Count” has long used the trademark “Education” in their literature. The reason for such action, “a’m sure Ventana-Graf” is easily explained: “the Enlightenment” have invested heavily in promoting their trademarks, in particular produced about four million books with logo of a stylized globe. This made the logo recognizable, and the reputation of the publishing house “Enlightenment” has led to high degree of consumer confidence, did not fail to take advantage of competitors.

Based on a public interview, the “Enlightenment” absolutely confident in its position in this litigation. From the point of view of an expert, than this position is backed up?

If we talk about the position of the publishing house “Ventana-Graf”, it is quite simple. Trademarks of “Enlightenment” are the official logos of educational standards that were supposedly developed by “Education” for the state in the framework of the state contract. However, the state itself in the person Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation confirmed that in principle there is no official logo educational standards and that each market participant indicates to the satisfaction of its literature standards in their own way, using their own notation. Separately, the Ministry pointed out that the trademark of “Enlightenment” is not the logo of the state educational standards.

the Agency has completely ignored the state’s position and concluded, contrary to the position of the Ministry of education and science that the trademarks of “Enlightenment” is the logo of educational standards. This approach is paradoxical. Signs are deprived of protection in the interests of the state, but the state itself declared that his interests are not violated. However, the Agency apparently believes that he knows better what we need the Ministry of education, what would it say.

Even more interesting situation happened with the state contract, according to which the alleged “Enlightenment” has developed a logo for the state in the face of Russian Academy of education. The fact that the contract expressly provide that it does not involve the creation of intellectual property. A contract for technical support of the website. Moreover, the Russian Academy of education submitted a letter stating that the state contract with “Education” for her no logos have been developed.

But in this case, the Rospatent has ignored the words of a state body (essentially the state), the interests of which he supposedly fought, depriving the marks of legal protection.

in addition, during the hearing we have provided dozens of examples of how different publishers indicate the compliance of their products to educational standards as evidence that a unified logo simply does not exist. Other publishers do not bother to develop their own visual element, but the “Ventana-the Count” was easier to get ready and promoted the logo of “Education”.

There is one feature that clearly illustrates the entire artificiality of the position of Rospatent and “‘m sure Ventana-Graf”. The designation is used “Ventanas-Count” on his books, similar to the point of confusion with the trademarks of “Enlightenment”, but not identical. Why would you change the logo of “Education”, if the argument of our opponents, they used the official logo of the educational standard? For example, if you use the coat of arms of the Russian state in the form of the eagle, then it makes no sense to modify, pririsovyvat new parts — you use the same for all and known to all designation. “Ventana-the Count” tries to sit on two chairs: on the one hand, to prove that a trademark is “Enlightenment” — the official symbol of educational standards that is universal and known to all, on the other hand, to justify the lawfulness of the use of modified, reworked designation. In my opinion, the logical defect of this position quite clear, sorry, that is not the Rospatent.

“Ventana-the Count” also refers to the fact that the alleged designation in the form of a stylized globe was used as the logo of the Federal educational standards by different individuals both before and after the priority of the trademark of the publishing house “Enlightenment”. As evidence of “Ventana-Graf” results in the presentation of different faces posted on the Internet. Most of these evidence are irrelevant, because to challenge the registration of a trademark is possible only by reference to the evidence relating to the period before the priority date of the trademark. “Ventana-Graf” was presented by a single presentation that meets this criterion, where the logo of the publishing house “Enlightenment” is placed next to the copyright symbol of the publishing house “Enlightenment” (in a circle) that indicates whether the logo is “Education”. However “Ventana-the Count” continues to insist that the logo of the publishing house “Enlightenment” on the website of state standards automatically means that the logo belongs to the state.

the Final touch that accentuates the defects of the position “a’m sure Ventana-Graf” and demonstrating how she is far from the truth, is that the first educational standards were approved only in 2009, and the logo of “Enlightenment” was used by the publisher for one and a half years earlier. It turns out that the first “Enlightenment” was to use its trademark for his books, and then, the logic “a’m sure Ventana-Graf”, he in some mysterious way suddenly turned into a logo of the state standards after their adoption. This position is unusual and original from the point of view of the neglect of the chronological regularities and common sense.

What signals the market gives a controversial decision of Rospatent, which repealed the previously registered their marks? Which of the arguments presented in the decision of Rospatent, don’t you agree?

of Course, this is a negative signal to the market, because in this case violated the principle of stability of civil turnover. Despite the fact that during the first trial in violation of the rights to the trademark “Enlightenment” won the case, the decision of Rospatent questioned the ability to protect the copyright of their rights. If there is no real chance of defending their logo, why then do we spend so much effort and money on its creation and promotion?

“This money will suffice only on bread”

Soviet pension system today, it is customary to speak well. However, like all other systems, within which were built the life of the Soviet people in the “good old days”. They remember with nostalgia, even those whose retirement age has not yet come — that is, they say, in the Soviet Union retirees lived, not survived, not now! So whether it was in fact, dealt “the Tape.ru”.

“my Grandmother worked very little, but lived in the city. She had four children. She received, it seems rubles 25 in the early 1960’s. my Grandmother bought “out of retirement” 150 grams doctoral sausage, I asked her to cut, and we (I was seven) had to eat a sausage right outside the store. It was so delicious that nothing would be better”, — says the pensioner Sergey in interview to the newspaper “New retiree”. There’s also other people talk about their parents: mother was a farm girl, at the end of 60 years received a pension of 12 rubles; mom worked at a fur factory, due to the interrupted time received a pension of 30 roubles.

Now, when you talk about pensions, remember it was the Soviet time and the Soviet pension system. They say, let this diversity of products on the shelves, and queues had to stand, but pensioners are not in poverty and on his retirement lived much better than the present, because the products that you could get, even after standing several hours, was worth significantly less.

When was this? Someone will say that in the Brezhnev era, “blessed stagnation”, someone remembers the good word of Joseph Stalin, for some, this period extends until the beginning of the “cursed” adjustment. It is clear that those who began receiving a pension before the collapse of the Soviet Union, now in the best case 80, and the judge, they can only about positive and negative aspects of the pension system of the Soviet Union, faced themselves. Yes, make allowances for the fact that in those days they were younger, healthier, and thus saw the world in a much more rosy than now. Meanwhile, the pension system of the Soviet Union in the form in which it existed in the 1980-ies of the last century, was adopted not by the decree of the Bolsheviks in 1917.

the status of the man as a respected member of society, passed a challenging career, stuck in an old Soviet man is closer to 1930-m to years. In the first years after the revolution the elderly — particularly women — were considered, according to the historian Maria Romashova, as “ideologically alien, backward, mired in life and decomposing children’s religious upbringing”.

“the Old was equivalent to dying, and the process of extinction was not supposed to hold anyone’s attention. Youth and old age have ceased to be a natural biological phenomena, in different stages of the same human life. Young is clearly not going to get old. Old age was under suspicion,” explains this trend, literary critic Marietta Chudakova.

Indeed, the pension system, even in its rudimentary form, was developed in the USSR long enough. In 1918 the decree of people’s Commissars of the RSFSR entitled to social benefits received citizens “deprived of their main income or part thereof due to incapacity or unemployment.” That is, it was either on the Dole or on disability pensions.

during the 1920-ies gradually, there were other categories of citizens eligible for social benefits. So, in 1921 on increased pensions could qualify “for the elderly and disabled people’s teachers, meritorious service to public education”. Gradually introduced pensions for the military, who become disabled during hostilities, and in 1929 the pension finally received certain categories of employees. It was the workers of mining, metallurgical and electrotechnical industry, but also railway and water transport. Here one can meet familiar figures: pensions were paid to men 60 years and women 55 years of age. The first experience had to be 25 years and the second 20 years.

Finally, an important milestone in the development of the pension system of the USSR was the article 12 of “Regulations on pensions and social security benefits”, approved by the decree of people’s Commissars in 1930. According to her all employees of SOEs could qualify for pension payments upon retirement. However, it is important to understand that while the USSR was a predominantly agrarian country, but on state pensions for farmers and peasants were not discussed, although they accounted for a large part of the population. But in 1935, in the Constitution of the Soviet Union was enshrined the right of all citizens to pension benefits.

How is it implemented? First of all, it should be noted that no pension Fund then the country did not exist. The burden of creating social funds were assigned to each company. In the collective Board of the cooperative was on the common decision to create a social Fund and a charitable Fund.

But it should be understood that the farm budget is primarily allocated for immediate needs, and often collective-farm pensioners no money saw they were replaced with genuine payment — grain, hay, firewood, etc. in addition, they were not binding, so a strong collective payments was weak and the elderly were often left with nothing.

according to doctor of historical Sciences Tatiana dimoni women, the study work on the elimination and prevention of poverty, carried out by regional departments of social security of the Vologda region in the early 1950-ies, showed that elderly and sick people, often single (usually over 70 years), were forced to “assemble the pieces”. In each district of the region, there were from a dozen to fifty people.

However, already in 1939 in the Great Soviet encyclopedia was written that “only in the Soviet Union citizens enjoy material security in old age and in case of illness and disability”. Here is the amount that is reserved for such payments in the budget for 1938: 3, 46 billion rubles.

But, as writes in his “Pension provision in the USSR” doctor of historical Sciences Vladimir Mamyachenkov, if you hold some simple calculations, with a total population of 160 million people, taking the proportion of pensioners over 15 percent, the average pension work in the amount of 150 rubles (pre-reform money — 15-denominated rubles). “At the same time a one meter woolen fabric [old money] was worth 87 rubles, a pair of boots or shoes the 50 — meter silk — 36 cubic metre wood — 18, and a pair of Slippers — 11,” he says.

Despite the fact that in the 1950-ies the situation has generally improved, it remains extremely unsatisfactory. No way to openly complain about low payouts (or lack thereof) of the citizens were not, so they invented interesting ways for them to say. Mamyachenkov gives an example, when during the elections of deputies of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 1954 in the urn was discovered a Bulletin with the following text: “Not allowed so far the Position on pensions. The amount of pension is set 90-155 rubles — this amount is clearly insufficient at current prices. This money may be enough only for one person, and then only for the bread, the more he will not be able to ensure its existence”.

the pensions Act was finally passed in 1956. It really is significantly raised pensions in the country (average 81%) and minimum in the amount of 300 rubles, and a maximum in the amount of 1,200 rubles (i.e., 30 and 120 rubles after denomination). But it is important to note that all these pleasures were available with experience of 25 years at men and 20 years for women. In its absence or shortage of the minimum pension was 75 roubles (7,5 rubles), which of course looked ridiculous.

And then we have to consider that many women, having grown old and not having experience, literally found themselves on the maintenance of children. “They constituted a numerous Legion of those who brought up the “new Soviet man”, despite the declarations about the necessity of public education bore the brunt of all the household chores, while their adult children worked on the production”, — said in his work Maria Romashova.

it is Also important to note that the law of 1956 is still not concerned farmers — the relevant legislation was enacted only in 1964. In this work they were supposed longer than other categories of citizens — 65 years men and 60 years for women, and the maximum pension was set in the amount of 120 and 102 rubles. “But this maximum has remained an unattainable dream rural pensioners: the average pensions of farmers was just miserable,” writes Mamyachenkov. Only 12 rubles — as was usually made the collective farm pensioners, after the adoption of the law, but by 1985 this figure had barely risen to 40 rubles.

in this society since 1920-ies there was the privileged category of citizens whose pension was considerably higher than the maximum. It was a so-called personal pensioners — certain people who “made an exceptional contribution to the construction of the Soviet state”. People who received a personal pension, were divided into personal pensioners of the Union, Republican and local importance. In 1977, these pensions were 250, 160 and 140 rubles, respectively. In addition, there was an additional payment to workers with more seniority, as well as the old Bolsheviks, exiles and political prisoners of the Russian Empire. They were put and special benefits. Received allowance for retirement and retired military. The circle of these persons, however, were severely limited, and significant impact on the overall picture they are not provided.

the Merit which appointed a personal pension, were sometimes quite controversial. “So, in 1961, the regional party asked to grant a pension of Republican significance no one M., the employee of the Gulag, which “…since 1942, is constantly on the party work in the system of corrective labor camps and colonies interior Ministry”,” writes Mamyachenkov.

of Course, the Communist party and the Soviet Motherland not to overlook those who led them. For example, Nikita Khrushchev, sent to forced retirement in 1964 and in 1965 received pension payments in the amount of 500 rubles per month. Party officials of high rank were too often retired with pensions, which amount exceeded payments to pensioners personal Union values.

you Cannot, however, be noted that payments were regularly increased, and by 1980, the average pension in the USSR was about 70 rubles. But it is important to understand that around a quarter of pensioners of the Soviet Union received the minimum pension. A domestic boots with faux fur cost 80 rubles, the coat — 111 rubles, not to mention all sorts of frills like home appliances and electronics (which had yet to get it).

the number of citizens of retirement age by the end of the Soviet era grew rapidly, and payments of state-owned enterprises social spending remained the same the gap was covered by government subsidies. The multiplicity of different pension schemes, the General confusion and opacity of the system only aggravated the situation. The oil crisis of the 1980-ies the social costs of state has made a significant contribution to the country’s budget deficit. Huge Soviet country, which ultimately collapsed under the weight of this and other problems, growing like a snowball.

He lived and died

16 years ago, unremarkable American has committed suicide in his own house. Since then, the state of Ohio trying to figure out who this man was: he stole the identity of eight-year-old boy, who died in a car crash more than 50 years ago, and could be one of the most famous serial killers of the United States. “the Tape.ru” tells how over the years of searching, investigators were able to only learn his real name, but mysteries became even greater.

21 Dec 1945 family of Americans went to celebrate Christmas with grandma. The chandlers loaded-prepared gifts in the trunk of the family car and hit the road. After a few hours of their car at high speed collided with a truck whose driver had swerved into oncoming traffic in an attempt to avoid the parked cars.

Joseph Newton Chandler II, Elena, “Billy” Chandler and their son Joseph Newton Chandler III had died instantly. After 56 years, it was found that under the name of eight-year-old boy, who died in a car accident, another one died.

June 23, 2002 in the small American town of Eastlake, Ohio, Joe Chandler returned from work, turned the unit off, crossed out not until the end of the day in the calendar, went into the bathroom and committed suicide. Police found his body a week later by a sharp odor coming from his home. Near him was found a revolver.

Joe worked as an electrician-designer in chemical company Lubrizol. He was a normal, slightly introverted and a man she hardly noticed colleagues. Colleagues seen in the behavior of Jo’s oddities, but no more. For example to concentrate, he turned on the TV and specifically enabled it with white noise. Once he was at a theme party dressed as a gangster, but with anyone and not talking. Sometimes, according to colleagues, he had bouts of paranoia: he felt someone watching him.

Shortly before his suicide Joe was diagnosed with colon cancer, so the investigation especially no one did, considering his illness a valid reason for departure.

the First of the mysterious details of this case emerged when the investigators found in the Bank account of the deceased 82 thousand dollars and started looking for possible heirs. The investigation quickly established that the relatives had not been. As there was the Chandler — an old closed designer never existed. The real Joseph Newton Chandler III had died more than half a century ago. The story was leaked to the media, and the next 16 years, journalists, Internet investigators and other enthusiasts tried to understand who actually was a normal-looking lone American.

First Marshal Pete Elliott, who led the case, decided to see if it matches DNA in the database uncaught dangerous criminals. By the beginning of the investigation of pseudo-Chandler already cremated and buried under that name, which was familiar to his colleagues. However, DNA samples managed to get to the hospital, where he received a terminal diagnosis. Reconciliation with tens of thousands of foreign models gave nothing.

the Investigation has developed several versions. For example, experts tried to find out whether the suicide kind of Stephen Campbell, which in 1983 filled with jealousy, had prepared for his wife’s lover the bomb, but accidentally almost blew up herself. He was arrested, released on bail, and no one has ever heard of.

Campbell deceased mother engineering profession, love to assign other people’s names and some geographical coincidence. The investigation seemed to have been overlooked a huge mismatch external data the two men. Low light-eyed Chandler could not be a high brown-eyed Campbell, and the age difference they had about 15 years. Another theory of the investigation was that the fake Chandler is John Anglin, an escapee from Alcatraz, the most secure prison in the United States.

In 2014, the search resumed. In parallel, various theories investigators continued to study the DNA samples of men who over the years while in the paraffin wax, is much damaged. In 2016 to the case of connected famous forensic of geneology Colleen Fitzpatrick that has examined the Y chromosome of Chandler and after so many years of fruitless search could induce a consequence on the right track. Elliot asked Fitzpatrick after thanks to her efforts had solved a complex crime 25 years ago, and it has paid off.

In 2018, the authorities officially announced that the remains of the fake Chandler identified it was Robert Ivan Nichols.

When the family of eight Joseph Newton Chandler III was in a car accident, Nichols was 19 years old. He was born in 1926 in new Albany, Indiana. In 1945 he served in the Navy fireman 2nd class. His ship was attacked by the Japanese outside of Okinawa, he was wounded and subsequently submitted to the state award. Returning from the war, Nichols burned its shape.

In January, 1947 he married Laverne Court, they had three boys. But in 1964, Nichols left the family, saying to his wife that soon she learns the reason for his departure, moved to Michigan and then to California. In the letters to the children, he reported that he is in Redmond, but sent they were from NAPA. In 1965, he broke off all contact with his family, which after some time declared him missing.

Another 13 years, it was Robert Ivan Nichols, but in 1978 something in his life has changed dramatically. That’s when Nichols assumed the identity of long-dead Joseph Newton Chandler III. This Chandler was no social security in those years, she could only get the adults. In his map of Nichols pointed out the names of parents and date of birth of Joseph. He also managed to assign the dental records of the deceased boy. Since that time, and for the next 24 years, knew Nichols as quiet, but a little eccentric Joe Chandler.

He avoided people, he lived modestly, never attracted attention to himself, but still, in recognition of his acquaintances, was quite strange. The investigation interviewed colleagues and neighbors of the Nichols and carefully checked all the strange episodes in his life to understand why he left his former life and hid under another identity. During the investigation, for example, found an unusual fact: as a Chandler,he once went to the hospital with a torn penis, and his injury was explained by the fact that I’ve masturbated with a vacuum cleaner. Chandler also reason told colleagues about her sister Mary Wilson, but during the investigation it was found that no sister Mary, of course, does not exist.

In 2005, a famous crime journalist Steve Huff, involved in creating a crime-drama series “Better call Saul!”, advanced my theory about the person of Chandler, who later became one of the most popular. He suggested that Nichols is the serial killer known as the zodiac.

After the name of the deceased was established, Huff compared the facts of life Nichols and the famous maniac and build a plausible version.

Nichols was a draftsman and had engineering experience. For many years investigators in the case of the Zodiac gave this criminal the same skills. Many evidences indicate that the zodiac, like Nichols, was a veteran of the war. The first Zodiac crime — murder of Cheri Jo Bates — was committed a year later after the fake Chandler disappeared from family and friends.

the Famous killer called himself the zodiac in mocking letters sent to the Newspapers. In the messages he has encrypted small facts about himself, mocking those who have lost their legs in his quest. It is believed that the first letter of the cipher, the zodiac sent in 1978 — at the same time Nichols was stealing someone else’s identity and became a Chandler.

the Journalist also points to the resemblance Nichols and descriptions of the Zodiac: average height, tousled dark hair, typical for men receding hairline, glasses, round chin, a small extension on the bridge of the nose.

Hoff is Particularly worried by the fact that the last letter from Nichols to his son Phil was sent from NAPA. The second well-known Zodiac murder occurred in the NAPA valley — next to lake berries, in 1969. In the history of the Internet queries Nichols also there is one circumstance linking him to the zodiac: he studied plastic explosives. A serial killer in one of the encrypted messages drew the layout of the bombs.

the Journalist admits that he has already fallen into the trap of his own theory: he can’t look at new evidence impartially and trying to put them in their own concept. However, the journalist-enthusiast, and the official investigation are still trying to understand what made the average American declined from family and friends, to live a life in a strange place in absolute isolation, and finally suicide.

Crazy Kush

Big win in the lottery is able to cool to turn the life of any person. However, not everyone understands what to do with suddenly descended on the head of wealth. There are many stories where yesterday’s lucky winner was without a single penny in his pocket, just to make ends meet. For estimates experts, about 70 percent of lottery winners lose everything within a few years. Why light ruining millions of lives and how to properly dispose of their capital at “the Tape.ru”.

the Man, hitting the jackpot, inevitably covers the euphoria, the emotion overflowing, it seems that life will never be the same that now will come true all the most secret dreams. Life and Ravda changing, but the most common scenario is that the happy owners of a multimillion-dollar winnings immediately quit my job, start buying luxury real estate, luxury cars, branded clothes, and the rest of the money handed out left and right or just let the wind. It all ends, as a rule, severe depression, alcoholism, drug addiction, divorce and even suicide.

a Similar fate befell American, Billy Bob Harrell, Jr., in 1997 when he won $ 31 million Lotto Texas Lotto. Billy Bob quit his job, bought a ranch, several houses and cars for himself and members of his family. However, he made several large donations to the Church, and even handed out food to the poor. However, his generosity attracted unwanted attention, and he had several times to change the phone number after strangers called him with requests and even demands to donate money. A year from Harrell left his wife, and it became for it strong blow. May 22, 1999 son found him dead in his own home, with a gunshot wound in his chest. His family members could not believe that Harrell could commit suicide, but he was clearly not happy with his life. Shortly before his death, Harrell told his financial adviser: “Winning the lottery is the worst thing that ever happened to me”.

Another bleak example of canadian IBI Roncaioli from Ontario, won the lottery, five million dollars in 1991. She were killed from her husband, from whom you hid your winnings. The woman decided to give two million to his son from his first marriage, and the rest of the money to live happily. The result Roncaioli addicted to gambling and squandered not only won millions, but all the family savings. In 2003, it has accumulated so much debt that the family had to sell the house. Then Joseph Roncaioli accidentally found out about dissipated the winning couple was so mad that he poisoned the wife of a horse dose of painkillers and went to jail for murder.

But someone still manages to get back to normal even after several years of spree. In 2002, 19-year-old garbage collector Michael Carroll from the UK was very lucky — he won the lottery a fabulous 10 million pounds (slightly more than $ 13 million at current exchange rates), which in eight years left even a penny. Carroll squandered all the winnings, buying booze, drugs, expensive cars and elite prostitutes. He had divorced with his wife and twice to go behind bars.

the Last half a million pounds Carroll spent in 2008, and when there’s nothing left, sold cars and real estate worth about 400 thousand pounds and continued to go for a stroll. When this money ran out, he became depressed and began to think about suicide. Spending the night somewhere in the woods of Scotland, he realized that all is not lost and there is a chance to return to his former life. And though again to get the garbage collector failed, they took him to a candy factory packer cookies. Now Carroll gets just 204 pounds per week, commutes to work by bike, swims and finds the money the “root of evil”.

Among Russians such stories are not uncommon. In 2001, the winner of the edition of “Bingo show” became unemployed Ufa family Mukhamedzyanovich — they took a substantial prize in the amount of 29 million rubles. Loved to drink the couple decided to celebrate my good luck, but in the end went on a binge for a few years, littered with money, giving large amounts of debt, which, as a rule, no one has returned, extinguished the loans of friends and acquaintances, made expensive gifts to relatives. However, they managed to acquire property and cars before spent. The mother of the family of Nadezhda mukhametzyanova died five years after winning, she was 52 years old, and the last six months she lived in absolute poverty. Her husband and her sons, according to neighbors, have become shut-ins. Rustem Mukhametzyanov after the death of his wife continues to drink, and still contains cats, picked up on the street. Their sons are 25 and 27 years do not work and live on money from renting bought in better times in the apartments.

In 2009, the 26-year-old resident of Leningrad region albert Begrakjan won the “Gosloto” 100 million rubles. He bought several apartments in the centre of Saint-Petersburg, car brand Lexus, land in the Krasnodar region, gave the relatives of about 12 million. As a result, a big win anything left in two years. Thus, Begrakjan still owed to the state of 4.5 million, as not fully paid the tax. To repay the debt, he had to sell one of their apartments in St. Petersburg. Begrakjan’m sure he spent the money quickly, it made up for it though with the mind, but the story of winning the lottery calls a “challenge for my family.”

There are, however, positive examples. Moscow locksmith Evgeny Sidorov, winning in the same year 2009, 35 million rubles, left to the village and engaged in agriculture: restored barns, set in order the road cleared of the local ponds and he made places for paid fishing. Now he is breeding carp and feels quite happy. And the residents of the Samara region Natalia and Oleg Hasay, winning in 2011, slightly more than four million rubles, donated most of the money to build a Church.

Often won in the lottery to give money to charity. So, canadian Thomas Crist received the prize in 2013, a record amount of 37 million canadian dollars (28 million U.S. dollars at current exchange rates). Every penny of the man donated for medical research aimed at treatment and prevention of cancer that took away his wife. A British pensioner Margaret Lauri suddenly rich at $ 27 million, though the limit of her dreams were only a million. So she decided to share her winnings and transferred to the accounts of various charities, a total of 26 million, leaving himself the one, about which dreamed.

whether it’s people on his heart or out of fear of being killed or looted — hard to say. Anyway, there was even the phenomenon of abandoned million when lottery winners just don’t show up, and not take the win. “Winning a large sum is certainly a great joy, but at the same time and test for the psyche. Man produces re-evaluate their own values, and it will take some time to getting used to the idea, because often people make rash actions without thinking about the consequences,” — believes psychologist Roman Suleymanov.

However mnogomillionnyj jackpot can provide you a comfortable old age, without becoming a burden or threat to your safety. When the first emotions of the winnings will be, you should soberly assess the situation and act cautiously. Many experts suggest to stay hidden and not to reveal their identity, not to discuss the winnings among his friends and acquaintances, not to mention the media. To hide the sudden wealth from family and loved ones is not recommended — it may have a negative impact on your relationship, as in the case of IBI Roncaioli.

the Second thing you need to understand: do you want to get the full amount of winnings in a lump sum or to break it into multiple payments. At this stage, better to get a financial Advisor and lawyer that will help you make that decision and dealing with taxes. Financial Advisor Scott Hanson recommends not choose advisors from among friends and relatives, and also advises to refrain from making major investment decisions — at least during the first six months. During this time, you need to clearly plan your budget: make a list of desired acquisitions, to determine how much money you wish to spend on themselves, many relatives and friends, what percentage to invest, and what to donate to charity.

At the first stage it is important to refrain from rash spending and to develop an investment plan — like it or not, this is the only way not only to maintain but also to increase capital. said Director of the Banking Institute HSE Vasily Solodkova, a model of savings in Russia in recent years has changed somewhat. Previously, a good option was considered foreign currency deposits, but now the interest rate on them is close to zero. Moreover, in the case of revocation of Bank licenses your money you will receive in rubles at the current exchange rate, so in this case it is easier to buy a Bank account and put money there. In ruble Bank deposits the economist also refers ambiguous — because the ruble is difficult to predict and depends on many factors. “The most reliable option is to transfer a large sum in currency and to put in Europe, where banks are insured for 200 thousand euros, or in the United States, where 250 thousand dollars”, — Solodkov advises, while noting that because of the very low Deposit interest rate in the West is first and foremost a tool for conservation.

as a more lucrative investment instrument expert calls securities — stocks and bonds. However, in this case we consider that the securities are not insured, and this means some degree of risk. If one or the other company suddenly declare that for some reason will not to pay the bonds or the shares of the company in which the investor invested in will fall, it will be his personal problems. In addition, when investing in securities economists suggest the use of fiduciary management if the level of their financial literacy is low.

do Not forget about the possibility of investing in real estate — this option is considered the most reliable and stable. But whatever you choose, the main tool is the principle of diversification: simply put, should not put all your eggs in one basket, it is better to create an investment portfolio using multiple tools. This strategy will minimize your risks, and capital, inherited by a lucky chance, do not evaporate as easily.

He lived and died

16 years ago, unremarkable American has committed suicide in his own house. Since then, the state of Ohio trying to figure out who this man was: he stole the identity of eight-year-old boy, who died in a car crash more than 50 years ago, and could be one of the most famous serial killers of the United States. “the Tape.ru” tells how over the years of searching, investigators were able to only learn his real name, but mysteries became even greater.

21 Dec 1945 family of Americans went to celebrate Christmas with grandma. The chandlers loaded-prepared gifts in the trunk of the family car and hit the road. After a few hours of their car at high speed collided with a truck whose driver had swerved into oncoming traffic in an attempt to avoid the parked cars.

Joseph Newton Chandler II, Elena, “Billy” Chandler and their son Joseph Newton Chandler III had died instantly. After 56 years, it was found that under the name of eight-year-old boy, who died in a car accident, another one died.

June 23, 2002 in the small American town of Eastlake, Ohio, Joe Chandler returned from work, turned the unit off, crossed out not until the end of the day in the calendar, went into the bathroom and committed suicide. Police found his body a week later by a sharp odor coming from his home. Near him was found a revolver.

Joe worked as an electrician-designer in chemical company Lubrizol. He was a normal, slightly introverted and a man she hardly noticed colleagues. Colleagues seen in the behavior of Jo’s oddities, but no more. For example to concentrate, he turned on the TV and specifically enabled it with white noise. Once he was at a theme party dressed as a gangster, but with anyone and not talking. Sometimes, according to colleagues, he had bouts of paranoia: he felt someone watching him.

Shortly before his suicide Joe was diagnosed with colon cancer, so the investigation especially no one did, considering his illness a valid reason for departure.

the First of the mysterious details of this case emerged when the investigators found in the Bank account of the deceased 82 thousand dollars and started looking for possible heirs. The investigation quickly established that the relatives had not been. As there was the Chandler — an old closed designer never existed. The real Joseph Newton Chandler III had died more than half a century ago. The story was leaked to the media, and the next 16 years, journalists, Internet investigators and other enthusiasts tried to understand who actually was a normal-looking lone American.

First Marshal Pete Elliott, who led the case, decided to see if it matches DNA in the database uncaught dangerous criminals. By the beginning of the investigation of pseudo-Chandler already cremated and buried under that name, which was familiar to his colleagues. However, DNA samples managed to get to the hospital, where he received a terminal diagnosis. Reconciliation with tens of thousands of foreign models gave nothing.

the Investigation has developed several versions. For example, experts tried to find out whether the suicide kind of Stephen Campbell, which in 1983 filled with jealousy, had prepared for his wife’s lover the bomb, but accidentally almost blew up herself. He was arrested, released on bail, and no one has ever heard of.

Campbell deceased mother engineering profession, love to assign other people’s names and some geographical coincidence. The investigation seemed to have been overlooked a huge mismatch external data the two men. Low light-eyed Chandler could not be a high brown-eyed Campbell, and the age difference they had about 15 years. Another theory of the investigation was that the fake Chandler is John Anglin, an escapee from Alcatraz, the most secure prison in the United States.

In 2014, the search resumed. In parallel, various theories investigators continued to study the DNA samples of men who over the years while in the paraffin wax, is much damaged. In 2016 to the case of connected famous forensic of geneology Colleen Fitzpatrick that has examined the Y chromosome of Chandler and after so many years of fruitless search could induce a consequence on the right track. Elliot asked Fitzpatrick after thanks to her efforts had solved a complex crime 25 years ago, and it has paid off.

In 2018, the authorities officially announced that the remains of the fake Chandler identified it was Robert Ivan Nichols.

When the family of eight Joseph Newton Chandler III was in a car accident, Nichols was 19 years old. He was born in 1926 in new Albany, Indiana. In 1945 he served in the Navy fireman 2nd class. His ship was attacked by the Japanese outside of Okinawa, he was wounded and subsequently submitted to the state award. Returning from the war, Nichols burned its shape.

In January, 1947 he married Laverne Court, they had three boys. But in 1964, Nichols left the family, saying to his wife that soon she learns the reason for his departure, moved to Michigan and then to California. In the letters to the children, he reported that he is in Redmond, but sent they were from NAPA. In 1965, he broke off all contact with his family, which after some time declared him missing.

Another 13 years, it was Robert Ivan Nichols, but in 1978 something in his life has changed dramatically. That’s when Nichols assumed the identity of long-dead Joseph Newton Chandler III. This Chandler was no social security in those years, she could only get the adults. In his map of Nichols pointed out the names of parents and date of birth of Joseph. He also managed to assign the dental records of the deceased boy. Since that time, and for the next 24 years, knew Nichols as quiet, but a little eccentric Joe Chandler.

He avoided people, he lived modestly, never attracted attention to himself, but still, in recognition of his acquaintances, was quite strange. The investigation interviewed colleagues and neighbors of the Nichols and carefully checked all the strange episodes in his life to understand why he left his former life and hid under another identity. During the investigation, for example, found an unusual fact: as a Chandler,he once went to the hospital with a torn penis, and his injury was explained by the fact that I’ve masturbated with a vacuum cleaner. Chandler also reason told colleagues about her sister Mary Wilson, but during the investigation it was found that no sister Mary, of course, does not exist.

In 2005, a famous crime journalist Steve Huff, involved in creating a crime-drama series “Better call Saul!”, advanced my theory about the person of Chandler, who later became one of the most popular. He suggested that Nichols is the serial killer known as the zodiac.

After the name of the deceased was established, Huff compared the facts of life Nichols and the famous maniac and build a plausible version.

Nichols was a draftsman and had engineering experience. For many years investigators in the case of the Zodiac gave this criminal the same skills. Many evidences indicate that the zodiac, like Nichols, was a veteran of the war. The first Zodiac crime — murder of Cheri Jo Bates — was committed a year later after the fake Chandler disappeared from family and friends.

the Famous killer called himself the zodiac in mocking letters sent to the Newspapers. In the messages he has encrypted small facts about himself, mocking those who have lost their legs in his quest. It is believed that the first letter of the cipher, the zodiac sent in 1978 — at the same time Nichols was stealing someone else’s identity and became a Chandler.

the Journalist also points to the resemblance Nichols and descriptions of the Zodiac: average height, tousled dark hair, typical for men receding hairline, glasses, round chin, a small extension on the bridge of the nose.

Hoff is Particularly worried by the fact that the last letter from Nichols to his son Phil was sent from NAPA. The second well-known Zodiac murder occurred in the NAPA valley — next to lake berries, in 1969. In the history of the Internet queries Nichols also there is one circumstance linking him to the zodiac: he studied plastic explosives. A serial killer in one of the encrypted messages drew the layout of the bombs.

the Journalist admits that he has already fallen into the trap of his own theory: he can’t look at new evidence impartially and trying to put them in their own concept. However, the journalist-enthusiast, and the official investigation are still trying to understand what made the average American declined from family and friends, to live a life in a strange place in absolute isolation, and finally suicide.