Glamorous scum

series of articles “the”, dedicated to the most rich, sexy and stylish men from different eras coming to an end. In the last article we talked about the most successful gentlemen of the 1990s — the years of grunge, heroin and supermodels. In the last article of this series, we will focus on the 2000s with their metrosexuals and globalization.

1990-ies was the real Golden age for Europe and the US, and in the new century, prosperity came to other parts of the world. Rapid economic growth was China and India that pushed up oil prices, and with them economies of oil-producing States such as Russia and the Kingdom of the Persian Gulf. The representatives of these countries in the XXI century began to exert a growing influence on the consumer market of the planet, including clothing. Another driver of globalization is technology.

If the boundaries between countries still existed between their inhabitants — is no more. You should thank the ubiquity of the Internet and social networks. In the new century fundamentally changed the very use of the world wide web — the world has entered a new level of engagement in the digital space. If before the center of new technologies was a computer, in the 2000s it was a smartphone. And thanks for this needed Steve jobs — one of the most important figures of the era.

the Name of Steve jobs has repeatedly surfaced in articles about previous eras. In 1982, the founder of Apple became the youngest participant in the first list Forbes and represented a real yuppie — a young, wealthy, popular with women, beautiful living and media businessman. A decade later, Steve has supported initiated bill gates the trend in smart casual among the bigwigs of the IT industry, putting on a presentation next product black turtleneck. But the hour struck jobs in the 2000s.

Returning to the position of CEO in 1997, Steve pretty quickly revived the company and started to prepare new products. Like the inventors of the turn of XIX and XX centuries, jobs and Apple did not respond to the demands of consumers and shaped them. In 2001, Steve opened the first branded Apple Store, setting the trend for stylish boutiques, which soon acquired a variety of companies — from manufacturers to sellers of capsules for coffee machines.

In the same year debuted a universal audio player iTunes MP3 player iPod, which changed the principle of the consumption of music. Instead of buying the media with songs, customers were encouraged to buy them online and upload to your device. Sale players not only beat all expectations, but also spurred the demand for the iMac.

the Next step, Apple has been selling music own: in 2003, earned the iTunes Store. Now the company has provided the customer with a whole range of products: and the music itself, and the means of its reproduction. But Steve didn’t believe in the happy future of the players. The development of phones, which in the new century there have been cameras, the resolution of which grew rapidly from generation to generation, has brought down the demand for digital cameras and camcorders. With the increase of the amount of internal memory the phones have been able to replace players. So Apple had to create your phone.

the First iPhone debuted in January 2007 and became a real revolution. In fact, the iPhone was sent to the dustbin of history the very phrase “mobile phone”, replacing it with the neologism “smartphone”. For a new Apple device the ability to make calls was not the main one. Speech of Steve jobs at the presentation of the iPhone is one of the best in history: according to surveys, 6 out of 10 Americans knew about the date of start of sales of the new gadget. Time Magazine named it invention of the century. For the first five years has sold 250 million iPhones, which brought the company more than 150 billion U.S. dollars. The gadget has completely changed the industry and made Apple the most expensive public company.

the richest man in the world, however, jobs did not. At the time of death the total value of its assets was estimated by Forbes magazine at $ 7 billion, what did jobs only 39th in the list of the richest Americans. However, money had nothing to do him. After returning to Apple, Steve received a salary of only one dollar per year, fifty cents for ideas and another 50 for that actually goes to work — so commented on your salary the businessman.

Expensive suits in the wardrobe of Steve jobs changed the famous black turtleneck sweater from Issey Miyake is a Japanese designer who developed the uniforms for employees of Sony. In the early 80’s Jobe had ordered the development of uniform and for Apple, but the company’s employees have welcomed the idea to dress up at work equally disapproving hum. Steve did not insist, but he regularly wore a black turtleneck sweater from Issey Miyake. Since 1998 he appeared in it on all Apple presentations.

But jobs turned his company into an object of almost religious faith, creating an army not customers, but fans. Apple gadgets have become the artifacts of this cult, Apple Store, churches, and Steve himself is the Supreme priest. Alas, to enjoy the success he was destined long. In 2003 he was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Instead of operative interventions, jobs, being a practicing Zen Buddhist, for nine months I had cured myself of nonconventional Eastern medicine.

In the end, after the operation it became clear that metastasis has already hit the liver. Jobs is thin and very old, but almost to death personally conducted all presentations of new products. Steve died on October 5, 2011. Fans around the world lined up to lay flowers and light candles at the walls of the Apple Store. Any other top Manager of multinational companies in the history of the clients is not goodbye so warmly.

New century back in fashion in fashion among men. The era of exponential neglect it, grunge and smart casual gave way to the age of the metrosexual. As in the 1980-ies, successful men began to follow their appearance and regularly update your wardrobe. But if for the yuppies the appearance was almost the main window of success and wealth, a symbol of belonging to the elite of society, the metrosexuals of the XXI century just wanted to look good. The term “metrosexual” was first used by mark Simpson on 15 November 1994 in an article for the Independent newspaper in describing a young and successful man who looks after himself and spends a lot of time on shopping, beauty salons and hairdresser.

the Present popularity of neologism found in 2002, when Simpson called the England and club “Manchester United” David Beckham “the main metrosexual in Britain”. After that Becks has become a living symbol of the whole phenomenon. David was popular not only among fans of the game: helping a comely appearance, and a romance with Spice Girls star Victoria Adams, which ended in the marriage and the birth of four children. In fact, in the twenty-first century Beckham created an image and a behavior model of the modern footballer.

He was among the first players to cover almost all body with tattoos. For the first time David went under the needle in 1999 to inflict upon them the name of their Victoria’s firstborn Brooklyn. Now on the body of the former players over 40 tattoos. Becks paid great attention to their appearance and brought back to the world Cup in Japan and Korea in 2002, personal hairstylist, who invented a new hairstyle for each match of the England team. However, such a delicate relationship of English to its hair has its explanation: the mother of a football player Sandra was a hairdresser and almost every day made small, David new hairstyle.

She led the boy to a football school. Being an avid fan of “Manchester United”, she dreamed of one day to see my son on the field in the colours of the “red devils”. In 1991, her dream came true, and 16-year-old David signed a contract with MU, and a year later played a match for the main team. In the new century, millions of boys dream of playing like Beckham and copied his moves. A smaller number of young people wanted to look like he was copying his hairstyle.

the Growing popularity of Beckham and his unofficial status of the main metrosexual Kingdom attracted the attention of the fashion industry. It all started with work in tandem with his wife. David and Victoria were persons of manufacturers of cosmetics and perfumes. Then came interest from manufacturers of sporting goods: in 2003 Adidas signed a player to a lifetime contract in the amount of 160 million US dollars. In 2005, the couple launched their own line of fragrances Beckham Fragrances. Then there was the underwear: in 2007, the Englishman became the face of Emporio Armani.

Interest to David was not extinguished, and after he announced his retirement. In 2011, he signed a contract with H&M, although the 2013 season was to be his last. Becks has just become the face of the brand, but also offered its own line of lingerie. Alas, nothing is eternal under the moon. In 2017, H&M did not renew the contract with the ex-footballer, preferring to find someone younger. New face of the brand was chosen rapper The Weeknd.

For all null Beckham was subjected to merciless criticism from fans and sports journalists for their way of life. They say, look, he paid much more attention than the quality of their game on the field. Every failure of the player became an occasion to recall the numerous advertising contracts, photo shoots for glossy magazines and constantly changing hairstyles.

But by the end of the decade, Beckham appeared followers. Cristiano Ronaldo and Sergio Ramos in football, Nicklas Bäckström in hockey, Rafael Nadal in tennis and half basketball NBA paid appearance no less attention than David, but it does not bother anyone. Becks struck fashion the way in sports and made athletes into a style icon.

Metrosexuals are so iconic of the era. Men took care of the manicures, hair, skin and wardrobe almost more than women. Metrosexuality has become a logical development of the trend on a healthy lifestyle. If you have beautiful body why don’t have to be beautiful nails, face and hair? Mustache and beard is almost completely out of fashion, but hairstyle can be quite different from a hedgehog a La Steve jobs to samurai ponytail in the style of Beckham.

in this clothing there is nothing fundamentally new was not invented — 2000s became the era of the return and reinvention of old trends. For the first ten years of the century in fashion came back flares and drainpipe trousers, Hawaiian shirt, ethnic print and a rough style mods — British subculture, which grew skinheads with their leather jackets and chunky army boots. While women competed with each other in glamour, men have rethought brutality. In fashion includes trousers and cargo shorts with lots of pockets, sleeveless tank tops and leather jackets in the style of James Dean and Marlon Brando.

a Huge role in the way men of the new century, globalization has played. Hip-hop fashion finally escaped from the black ghetto and began to have an impact on General trends. While Kanye West and P. Diddy were trying on costumes from the best designers, white guys EN masse wearing baseball caps with flat visor, sports Jersey and t-shirts, khaki pants, and ripped jeans.

the Official style was still taking the position of smart casual, and responsible for it thought leaders. If bill gates in the 90s at least has not renounced shirts, Steve jobs and the young Creator of Facebook mark Zuckerberg actually I forgot about them, favoring the sweater and t-shirt. On the red carpet Hollywood stars often appeared without a tie and unbuttoned collar. From the suit is now required to emphasize the excellent physical form of its owner, fitted jackets and skinny pants perfectly coped with it.

a Certain influence on fashion had a subculture. Many young people in search of self-expression became Rastafarians, Goths or Chav. New emo subculture began with their combination of black and pink clothes, bright makeup and vests with dark stripes. Individual items of clothing, typical for subcultures, have subsequently become mainstream.

Global trends in XXI century expanded the geographic presence. In Asia wore Nehru jackets and Chinese tunics only the most conservative policy, the youth of China and Japan sought to look like the Europeans and the Americans, and Arab fashionistas have become almost the main consumers of luxury items. In the 2000s, almost for the first time in the history of the standards of success are African-American rappers, Chinese businessmen and Russian oligarchs. The combination of globalization of the world and the simultaneous increase in the number of subcultures, which can be attributed to the metrosexual has become a major trend of the decade. In our days, little has changed.