Rolled into the asphalt

Fools and roads — the two eternal problems of Russia. If to assess the economic effect of the first problem is quite difficult to measure the loss of Russian society from the terrible transport infrastructure is quite real. For developed countries, infrastructure is a business that is beneficial to all: the state, society and, finally, by the companies that undertake the implementation of the project. In Russia everything is different — even potentially profitable projects like toll roads suck from the budget billions of rubles, the construction time is regularly broken, and the final product does not meet the stated standards. In the road the debacle of Russia understood “the”.

the Construction of roads in Russia — a zone of responsibility of authorities at all levels. Under the current legislation for the construction of the road depending on the type meets the relevant authority. Federal highways are the responsibility of the government, which claims list Federal highways and is responsible for their condition, repair and level of related infrastructure.

a Similar scheme down to levels below regional and municipal. Funds for reconstruction are allocated in accordance with the level of traces, i.e. at the Federal level from the Federal budget on regional roads — from the budget of the region. In parallel, the Federal centre can make a decision on the allocation of subsidies for the reconstruction of essential infrastructure, including road repairs.

the Current version of the law does not impose a mandatory fee for the use of roads: the formal use of the roadway free. However, the authorities regularly collect funds from the population through taxes and fees directly related to vehicles. Until 2003, the vehicle tax — payment, which is transferred to the budget of every car owner, just went for repair and restoration of the roadway. However, from 1 January 2003, this formal requirement had recommendatory character — the power of the regions received the right to reallocate the proceeds for other tasks, for example to increase the salaries of state employees or colleagues at the bureaucratic hall.

Funds for the construction, renovation, repair and development of transport networks of power collecting with the help of several taxes: transport tax (funds go to the regional level), the excise tax on diesel fuel and gasoline, which are actually embedded in the price of fuel per litre and the excise duty for the production of passenger cars and motorcycles with a capacity of over 150 horsepower.

Finally, some road users were much less fortunate — they pay extra money for roads. This, of course, about the truckers, which travel kilometers on the Federal highway cost 3.73 ruble. But that’s not all, former Deputy Prime Minister Deputy Prime Minister in late March, announced that a portion of the coming increase in the tax burden also aims on the infrastructure, including transport network development and reconstruction of roads.

the Redistribution of responsibility for the quality of the roads on the authorities of various levels often question the quality and safety of roads all scales — from regional and especially municipal authorities simply lack the funds to repair the most important transport hubs within their areas of responsibility. To solve this problem at least partially was to help the transition to a system of concessions for the construction and management of toll roads.

Concession — a form of partnership between the state and business. It gives the right to operate the enterprise, minerals, land, infrastructure etc. the Contract is for a fixed term, typically several decades that the investor is able to earn and to recoup the investment.

the toll road First appeared in Russia in 1999 — it was the 20-kilometer section of the highway M4 “don” to bypass the village of Khlevnoe in the Lipetsk region (444-464 kilometers). A year later, the section of toll road was extended another 30 kilometers to the road to join the bypass of the city of Zadonsk. According to Russian law, the driver should always be a choice to take the toll or free road, that is, to impose a tariff for the one road — it is illegal. Furthermore, the operator of the toll road is always obliged to inform motorists about the alternative free route.

Trust management M4 “don” carries out the largest infrastructure operator in the field of highways of the state company “Russian highways” (GK Avtodor), in direct submission the Federal road Agency (Rosavtodor), which reports directly to the Ministry of transport.

currently, the “don” is the longest toll road in the country — from 1517 kilometers of toll in the near future should become 892 kilometers. Start with the longest paid site (from 1195 at 1319 kilometer route in the Krasnodar territory) in the beginning of 2018 failed, but the company promises to do this immediately, as all work will be completed. Just on the road currently, there are 10 toll stations, operators which are two companies. The first “daughter” of “Avtodor toll roads”, the second “United toll collection systems” (ossp).

Until 2015, UTS was the executor of government contracts and belonged to the company-company — one of the largest contractors of public companies. 2015 “a United system of toll collection” has ceased to be a Russian legal entity. According to SPARK, they belong to the Dutch Highway Operations B. V. In July 2015, Mostotrest and French toll road operator Vinci company wrote in the Netherlands a legal entity to manage the Russian assets of UTS. Shares in UTS, the French and Russians are equal, but the “run in”, according to employees, it was the French. Workers complain about incompetent leaders, forgery, “draining money from the company.” General Director of the Frenchman — Pugh Thierry Maurice. In 2016 the company achieved record net profit of 713 million rubles, much of which due to the complicated ownership structure of the Russian budget will not go.

Fully paid M4 “don” plan to do by 2020. The cost of maintenance, support and construction of associated infrastructure can not count — the state company “Avtodor” reports about it publicly. Not enough normal information and the official website of the UTS, which not updated in 2015.

“Mostotrest” in addition, belongs share in another company which is the operator while under construction, but also owned “Avtodor” highway M11 Moscow — Saint Petersburg. We are talking about “North-West concession company” (szkk), it is also owned by the French holding Vinci and “Mostotrest”. Szkk is also manages the French — Lortie Ghislain, Jean-Marie, however, unlike the UTS in szkk, apparently, the French majority share — SPARK calls the head of the French Vinci. In 2017, the company received 3.8 million rubles of net loss, and this despite the fact that under the management of the company’s most expensive toll road in Europe.

all in All, the operational management of “Avtodor” enabled five routes at the Federal level. This M1 “Belarus” (a length of about 440 km), M3 “Ukraine” (500 kilometers) stretch of road А107 from Kiev to Leningrad highway (aka “Moscow small ring”), has stated the M4 “don” (1540 miles) and the M11 Moscow — Saint Petersburg (after the completion of the length is 669 kilometers).

Transfer of Federal highways in trust management of the state company does not mean that it will be they to manage. So, for the pay station in the Odintsovo bypass motorway M1 “Belarus” meets the company-operator of the “New quality roads”, which, according to the data SPARK, belongs to the Cyprus offshore Farncombe LTD. The same offshore company owned and company “the Main road” — co-investor of the construction of toll roads.

the Cost of building an 18-kilometer section of the road cost nearly 25 billion (1.44 billion per kilometer) most expensive a toll road in Europe. During the construction the way the Russian government has invested in the project 11 billion rubles, the concessionaire is 13 billion agreement was signed in 2009 for 30 years, but later extended the deadline by half a year due to litigation with the owners of land on the road, which shifted the construction period.

Upon expiration of the concession, namely, in 2041, the road should return to state ownership. At the current time, the revenue from operation of toll roads, which is partially built on the Russian taxpayers ‘ money is deposited in offshore accounts and not goes to the development of the road system of Russia. However, a much more interesting ownership structure of companies, which implemented this project. So, a Cyprus offshore company owned by “IFC Project”, which, according to SPARK, is engaged in investing in venture projects, while not having to 2018, even their own website. By March 2018, the company owned by the three entities: the previously mentioned “Main road” and “New quality roads,” which two belonged to 35 percent in “IFC Project” Investment company “Leader”, which owned 65 percent of the “venture investor”.

IR “Leader” is 60 percent owned by “Specialized Depositary “Infinitum””. The data in SPARK has not been updated since 2007, but among the owners of the Depositary was associated with Gazprom the company — ZAO “Leader” and Gazprombank. Thus, ZAO “Leader” belongs to another affiliated with “Gazprom” the structure of non —state pension Fund “Gazfond”. The founder of “Infinitum” is now dormant company “Master Stroy group”, which at that time belonged to the offshore Islands of Belize COMP GROFASON LTD. In the extract incorporation of data on shareholders of “Infinitum” no, FNS offers to apply for information either to the company or to the Registrar of the register of shareholders.

Reliable data on the owners of Cyprus LTD Farncombe is not, however, in March 2018 offshore company suddenly became the owner of “IFC Project”, and it was so, increasing the authorized capital of the company at 12 billion rubles with a starting capital of 100 thousand (where 65 percent owned IR “Leader”). And record of shareholders and the founders in incorporation is, they confirm that, on 14 Mar 2018 offshore became the owner of “IFC Project”, increasing its authorized capital by 12 billion rubles. The feasibility of the buyout of the company, information about financial activity in open sources there is no word, looks extremely doubtful.

On the highway M3 “Ukraine” has two toll road, they are both in Kaluga region. The first starts on 124-m kilometre “Ukraine” and ends 150 m, the second — from 150 km to 194. The second section passes through the river Ugra, bypasses the village of Kurovskaya, Muromtsevo, the village of Leo Tolstoy. The toll operator is “highways. Toll roads” (“daughter” of state company), but for the road condition responds DSK “Autobahn”.

the Amount of the contract for operational management of the stations between “highways” and “Highway” made 17 billion rubles. “Highway” belongs to the Alexey Andreev, who concurrently serves and the head of the company. Andreev in 2011, even fell in the list of the richest Russians according to the version Forbes magazine with a fortune of $ 500 million to gain a foothold in the list he, however, failed. The company specializiruetsya in the repair and construction of roads, as well as all related services. In addition to “Ukraine”, “Autobahn” cooperates with the “Avtodor” in the implementation of another major infrastructure project of the Central ring.

Pay-analogue of the Leningrad highway is one of the most promising projects of the company. Passenger traffic between the capitals regularly high, but Avtodor constantly disrupts the deadlines for the construction of the route. For the first time about the need to implement such a project the President of Russia Vladimir Putin he said in the spring of 2004. Then the cost of the road was estimated at 150-180 billion rubles. The government expected that about a third of the money in the road will put private business. To implement the project and to attract foreign investors and was created the state Corporation “Avtodor”.

Construction of the highway began in 2011 with a delay of two years, seven years of construction 669-km-long road the company has opened only three sections — the first from the Moscow ring road to Solnechnogorsk (15-58 kilometers), the second bypass Torzhok in the Tver region (208-258 miles) and the bypass Vyshniy Volochek (258-334 kilometers) from 669 kilometers are only 184.

the Head of the state-owned Sergey kelbakh says that the track to start work by the end of 2018, even though the original deadline of the project — to have time before the start of the world Cup in Russia, but here the head of state Corporation as a minimum, disingenuous. One of the builders of the track — all the same “Mostotrest” — revealed that the section bypassing Tver (58-149 kilometers) begin to build only in 2020. This section of toll road M11 will go to free the M10 as long as the plot can not be built. “The existing southern bypass is shorter than a promising North, and more comfortable,” tried to explain the discrepancy Sergey kelbakh.

keep Track of all contractors and builders of the track — just not possible, the company prefers not to report publicly on the construction of the road, and especially about problems and failures. The company, for example, caught in carrying out obviously non-competitive tenders for construction, when two participants of the contest belonged to one and the same person. The total cost of the route since 2011 rose with 150 billion to about 450 billion, with 80 percent of this amount will provide the state.

the Most ambitious infrastructure project, which is mandated to implement the “Avtodor”, may be the Central ring road (TsKAD), which should relieve the radial routes and to reduce the dependence of trucks from the highways. The ring is built in as an alternative to the old concrete ring, it will be expanded and transformed into a full motorway. The length of the ring will be 525 kilometres (the ring itself in the area of 340 kilometers), the road will be toll-free alternative will be the Moscow small ring. The Central ring will be held in the detour of large settlements of the Moscow region.

for the First time about the construction of the Central ring began in 2011, but the project has not received proper approval, have returned to it only in 2016. to Open the first stations planned in 2018, but now they moved closer to the submission deadline of the entire route — by 2019. The ring road is divided into five sections that “highways” refers to launch complexes. Directly ring form stations No. 5, No. 3, No. 4 and part of site No. 1. Parcel No. 2 together with a piece of land No. 1 form an additional branch, which is to link Federal motorway: M3, M1, M9, and M10. A branch is only on paper, to build his plan after 2020.

a Large part of the funding assumed by the state, which allocated 150 billion roubles directly from the national welfare Fund (NWF). About 80 billion rubles for the project allocated as grants, the remaining funds Avtodor had to find yourself, is to bring in the project of private investors. In this issue of state-owned companies, not all turned out smoothly, according to the latest report the accounts chamber, the company is experiencing difficulties not only with attraction of private investments, but with another inflating estimates for the mega project.

In the auditor’s report States that in addition to regular postponements of deadlines for sections of the road, the total cost estimate has increased from 300 billion to 313 billion. The report also Avtodor has been accused for the postponement of the withdrawal of lands for the construction of the road to 2018-2019, which again puts the project in doubt. There is no clarity and use of budgetary funds, the auditor noted that from selection on the passport of the project of 62.6 billion rubles for the CRR were involved while only 38.4 billion, finally, the state-owned company suffers from a lack of private investment in the project. Avtodor had failed to attract private 8.8 billion rubles. In this part these disadvantages, namely the postponement of the increase in the estimates, endorsed the government in July 2017.

If you go down to the level of each of the areas, where the situation is still neglected. At the beginning of April, according to the chamber, the first section of the Central ring was ready only 15.6 percent, the fifth — only 33 percent. Foster works on the third section were not held at all, that is, formally, he had “zero preparedness”, but even this plot better than the fourth, the construction of which was started in General and foreign investors in the face of the Turkish company Makyol was only in February of 2018, but in may refused from participation in the project.

But in the “Avtodor” I do not see this as a problem, the main thing that there was money for a building plot. State savings Bank, Gazprombank and the Eurasian Development Bank provided the company a loan in the amount of 31.6 billion rubles for 15 years. The total cost of construction of area — of 85.4 billion rubles, of which private money should be of 35.7 billion, however, the amount of this gave the Russian state-owned banks and one international. Almost in a similar way financed and the third section of the Central ring.

In Europe there is no single approach to the question of payment for using road infrastructure. In Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Austria, Latvia, Switzerland, common unlimited passes (vignette) for a certain period of time (day, week, month, year). This fee is a fixed fee and is frequently purchased at the border or in special outlets. In some countries, such as Austria and Switzerland, the vignettes are added to pay elements of the infrastructure — bridges, tunnels, etc they will be charged separately to recoup construction.

In other European countries, such as Denmark, Finland, Sweden, will have to pay only for the use of complex infrastructure. The world famous German autobahn is absolutely free, in the country charge a fee exclusively for the use of the tunnels, however, the German government is currently considering the introduction of such charges. The start of the pilot project is scheduled for 2019. In Germany charge the cost of the vehicles passing through the territory of national parks and reserves. The average fare on these areas is 7.9 euros (584 rubles).

However, the most advanced and extensive system of toll roads in Europe owns France, where the system is operated several companies that are distributed across multiple regions. Each year the entire system updates data on the cost of toll roads, publishing all necessary information on the website of the company. For example, travel by car on the toll road A1 (Paris — Lille) with a length of 221 kilometers will cost to 16.60 euros, or 1227 rubles (5.55 ruble per kilometer). To get from Paris to Strasbourg (489 kilometers) on the highway A4 will cost at 38.8 euros, or rubles 2868 (5.86 ruble per kilometer). Over 465 miles of motorway A6 from Paris to Lyon will have to pay 34,8 euros, or 2572 ruble (5.53 rubles per kilometer). Travel on the highway A7 connects Lyon and Marseille, with a length of 315 kilometers worth of 24.7 euros, or rubles 1826 (5.79 ruble per kilometer).

the Road network in Spain multiple times less French: 3,6 thousands of miles against almost 12 thousand. The fare on the Spanish highways is similar to the French is calculated once a year. The most expensive and simultaneously the longest toll road in Spain, which connects Barcelona and Valencia — for the 347 miles will have spread 36,15 Euro, or ruble 2762 (7.7 rubles per kilometer). From Bilbao to Zaragoza for 298 kilometers will have to pay to 31.7 euros, or 2343 ruble (7.86 rubles per kilometer). The shortest toll road in Spain from Villacastin ávila is located 26 kilometers to go it will have to pay 1.4 euros, or 103 roubles (4 rubles per kilometer). A similar ratio of price per kilometre and other short-paid parcels-for example, a 29-km road between Barcelona and the municipality Montmelo cost 1.61 euros, or 119 rubles (4,1 rubles per kilometer).

For comparison, around Odintsovo on toll motorway M1 “Belarus” in the daytime cost 350-400 rubles for 19 kilometers, or an 18.4 21.05 rubles per kilometer. The operator of the toll road company “Main road” offers discounts to those who bought the transponder from the partner “New quality roads,” the discount will be five percent — that is, if you need to pass one section of the toll road, your benefit can be entire 2.5 rubles.

Rates on the highway M3 “Ukraine” is much more accessible. The first toll section (124-150 miles of highway) will cost 50 rubles a day, in the absence of a transponder, if available — 40 rubles — out of 1.9 rubles per kilometer (without discounts). The second phase of the same alignment (from 150 to 194 kilometers) will cost the average motorist to 80 rubles, or 1.81 ruble per kilometer (with transponder 64 rubles).

On the track with the largest number of toll stations — the M4 “don” — the fare on sites differs from 25 to 150 rubles for the plot. The price varies depending on site and direction (from or to Moscow). So, on the cheapest land (330-414 miles of trails in the Lipetsk region) from Moscow the cost of one kilometer will amount to about 0.3 of the ruble, and the area 93-211 kilometers of trails at the intersection of the Moscow and Tula regions will cost 1.27 rubles per kilometer.

However, this price is deceptive due to the number of additional fees and excise taxes that are actually passed on to motorists, the transportation tax and excise taxes on fuel. For heavy trucks and trucks travel on any toll road on average 3-4 times higher, it appears that truckers pay for the roads, which should in principle relieve free highways under the local one-becomes, on the contrary, is not available.

However, even the high cost of M1 can not be compared with the rates in the area from Moscow to Solnechnogorsk highway M11 Moscow — St. Petersburg. The maximum cost for owners of passenger cars, bound from Solnechnogorsk in Moscow will amount to 600 rubles, or 14 cents per mile, but if you are going from Moscow to Sheremetyevo (10 kilometers), you will pay 300 rubles, or 30 rubles per kilometer — not even the price of EU. To drive through toll road from Moscow to St. Petersburg will cost about two thousand rubles (a little more than 3 cents per mile), the price recently called Kelbakh. However, confidence in the fact that the price tag will remain at the time the trace was started, no. Originally Kelbakh promised that the price will be only 1000.

in Fairness, the cost grew in early may, before the price kilometers from Sheremetyevo airport was 25 rubles. The operator of the section of the North-West concession company (szkk) explains the increase in the cost to the desire to transplant the part of road users on the transponders to which owners promise a discount of 20 percent for each fare. However, the transponder is at least a thousand rubles, in addition to have additional options and conditions, for example, one informational mailing manufacturer be attributed from the account is 50 rubles per month — in the absence of regular travel on toll roads benefit from the device is not obvious.

the Problem transponder was in the fact that one device was given a reduced fare only on one toll road. We have purchased a transponder for the M11 would not give preferences on the M4, and Vice versa. A single transponder earned from January 2018, it will launch realize a few years — now one device gives benefits on all toll roads in Russia.

Road projects in Russia, opaque, unprofitable and live exclusively at public expense. The state company Avtodor, responsible for the development of the whole industry, successfully working abroad, can’t even find investors for a major transport project of the Moscow region and relies solely on the credit money of the state banks. Optimization of the system and its debugging, as proven by the implementation of the “single transponder”, is a years, the cost of services is much higher than Western counterparts, and with the additional fiscal burden — several times.

On the way Russia gets a beautiful picture for wealthy people who do not look to the fare, preferring a quality service only because he can afford it. The rest are forced to either “spit and pay”, or just ignoring expensive infrastructure in favor of congestion on free roads. Similarly, with large vehicles, which could become nuclear audience such projects due to the excessive financial burden the heavy just can’t afford the toll roads: rate 3.73 rubles per kilometer of “Plato” is nothing compared to 30 or 45 rubles per kilometer for the same M11.