“the Tape.ru” begins a series of articles about subcultures and their influence on the fashion world with skinheads. In our country this subculture is inextricably linked to nationalism and racism, and dressed like a skinhead will not be allowed in a decent place. But in Europe, especially in Britain, prefer the style of skinheads and designers, and celebrities. How so?
Skinheads, and indeed all subcultures and counter-culture, post — war phenomenon. The generation of baby boomers oppose their parents and tried in every way to stand out from the mainstream public. On the other hand, the boomers were the first in many years, the generation that grew up in relative prosperity. War and the Great depression was in the past, in most countries of Europe and the USA have experienced sustained economic growth, work enough for all, and young people would happily spend money on themselves.
In Britain, this has led to the emergence of a whole range of youth subcultures, who gave a huge influence to their style and appearance. Subcultures were born and died, smoothly flowing into each other and adapting to new trends. The first was a Teddy-boy, working class, trying to emulate a dandy of the era of king Edward VII. Teddy-boys wore drainpipe trousers, coats and butterflies, listening to the Blues and rock-n-roll. However, stylish appearance did not prevent them from regularly fight members of other subcultures and to engage in conflict with the police.
Century Teddy boys was fleeting subculture was popular from 1954 to 1958. To replace Teddy battles came fashion. Cut in fashion comes from the modern lovers modern-jazz like Dave Brubeck, Charlie Parker and miles Davis. In fact, during the peak of its popularity was not listening to jazz, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Who and other rock groups of the 60’s. By mid-decade, fashion began to get involved in the Jamaican music ska and reggae.
Fashion drove on the Vespa and Lambretta, tune them, fighting with rockers, who preferred motorcycles, until the morning would sit in coffee shops and paid great attention to clothing. Most of the money was later on tailored suits from the tailors of Carnaby street and kings road. The remaining pounds left on the shirt with the collar button down, a cashmere jumper with V-neck, Chelsea and loafers.
With time the movement mods appeared branch, denied their dashing military aesthetics. In the second half of the 60’s fashion was divided into soft-mods, which were also called peacock fashion (from the English. peacock — “the peacocks”), and the hard mods. The last did not want to imitate the rich Bohemians, and tried to stress his proletarian origin. Of course, it was not in the social position, and in a banal shortage of money on expensive clothes to hard-mod included young people from the poorest suburbs of London. By the end of the decade, the star of the subculture of soft-mods set, and the hard mods changed my name. For their distinctive shaved heads, they became known as skinheads.
In Russia the reputation of skinheads or worse. And let the times of pogroms and mass fights were in the distant past, but the man with the shaved head, boots Dr. Martens and rolled up jeans on-former causes anxiety. Few people know that in England among the skinheads of the first wave there were a lot of black, and the style of subculture was greatly influenced by Jamaican rudeboy.
the thing is that the skinhead subculture originated in poor Eastern and southern suburbs of London, the majority of which were white workers and black migrants from the West Indies. Hard to believe, but in the mid-1960s the legendary Bob Marley was dressed like a typical mod, and then, though grew dreadlocks, but was much closer to hard-mod than to Rasta culture.
the Jamaicans, who dominated among black Londoners, instilled skinheads love of musical styles ska and early reggae, and with them to certain clothing. In fact, the style of skinheads first wave was a mix of wardrobes soft-fashion and rudboy. From the first skins took shirt button down plaid, Polo shirts, mohair suits and thin braces, and from the latter massive work boots, rolled up jeans Levi’s Sta-prest and hat pork-pie.
But there was a third source of style skinheads — the fan community. In the southern part of greater London are four of the 15 football clubs of the British capital: “London”, “crystal Palace”, “Millwall” and “Charlton”. Football matches involving these clubs was especially hot. Fighting between fan groups before and after matches, clashes with the police right at the stadium during the game were commonplace.
It is the fighting led to the emergence of a powerful army boot, shaved skulls and bomber jackets. For short hair it was impossible to grab in a fight, heavy boots reinforced strikes, and light jackets, bombers were allowed to slip out of the grip. Despite beginning to gain a foothold for the hard mod nickname skinheads, bald in the 1960s nobody was shaving the head was always short hedgehog.
the popularity of the skinheads became so great that the band Slade made his bow skinhead concert image and used this image in their marketing strategy. Over time, the skinhead movement first wave started to fall. He stood out from Southey, who wore long hair and went back to a few appearance mods, and bootboy, most of whom were football hooligans.
A subculture over in about the same way — its members are older, richer and outgrow their youth passion. The same thing happened with the first wave of skinheads. They rarely appeared on the streets, more time devoted to work and family. However, the subculture of skinheads is not dead, but transformed. However, skinheads of the first and second waves were combined only individual elements of the style. The social base of the movement was quite different.
If the hard-mode was a product of the economic boom of the late 1950s, the second wave of skinheads — the children of the economic recession of the 1970-ies in Britain. In many respects, the problems in the economy and was caused by racism new British skinheads. For them, the migrants were no longer work colleagues at the factory, and competitors for jobs, which is becoming less. Depressed areas grew and multiplied across Britain.
After the final defeat of the country in the Cod wars of the poorer major port of Grimsby, closed the mine in Yorkshire, inflation grew, and the government has cut social spending at the request of the creditors of the IMF. All this has led to a marked increase in aggression from skinheads of the second wave. Naturally, the young and evil could not fail to draw the attention of ultra-right parties like the National front, who began to recruit skinheads in the ranks of their “street soldiers”.
Together with the political views have changed music and clothes, typical for the subculture. As immigrants from the West Indies became almost the main enemies of many skins, and their music is ska and reggae also lost popularity. In Vogue, the pan-rock with its rough and much more heavy sounding, and the appearance of skinheads has lost its former luster.
If the skinheads of the late 1960s could afford Tonic Suit — cheap mohair suits in the 1970s was not up to them. The typical shape of the skin of the second wave is a shaved head, black shirt Polo Fred Perry, skinny suspenders, shoes Dr. Martens and Levi’s 501 jeans. And the shoes had to be polished to a Shine, and jeans rolled up. At first they were a little ankle to show the shoes, then roll up to become stronger in order to demonstrate and even bright socks.
the Skinheads, who shared ideas of racial superiority, decorated their clothes with Nazi symbols, while the symbol of left-wing skinheads was the badge Spirit of 69. Stripe played for skinheads an important role, telling about their football and political preferences. One of the first popular insignia was the insignia of the Royal air force of great Britain.
By the end of the decade, skinheads started wearing camouflage clothing that emphasized their belligerence. In addition to the heavy army boots skinheads wore loafers and brogues. Gradually formed and the Pantheon of favorite brands subculture. In addition to Levi’s, Fred Perry and Dr. Martens is not forbidden to wear jeans Lee and Wrangler, shoes Solovair and Tredair, sportswear Adidas and Gola, t shirt Lonsdale, Polo Brutus, Jaytex shirts, and jackets Ben Sherman and Harrington.
In the new decade life in Britain became more cheerful: the reforms of Margaret Thatcher revived the economy, the Royal Navy defended the Falkland Islands to war with Argentina, the flow of migrants into the country only grew, island designers have blown up the fashion world. In the new reality of far-right skinheads have become outspoken misfits and has retained this status to the present day.
At the beginning of XXI century, many elements of the skinhead style started to penetrate into Masterkovoy fashion. To start the forbidden status lost shaved heads and short haircuts. Bald shaved Brad pitt David Beckham, Hugh Jackman and Shia LaBeouf, Robert Pattinson and Daniel Radcliffe, Adam Levine from Maroon 5 and British singer Zayn Malik. Of course, no one thought to accuse them of racism or sympathy for ultra-right organizations.
moreover, the heads started to shave and girls, though for the sake of roles. However, the appearance in public without vegetation on the head of any Sigourney weaver or demi Moore or Natalie Portman nothing wrong with not seen so after shooting in no hurry to grow hair. But Britney Spears shaved under zero simple as an emotional impulse.
Not far behind, and the fashion industry. In 2008, DSquared showed on modern interpretation of the fashion of the skinheads collection. Black boots with white laces with extended shaft for scarves in the red cell, the very slim suspenders and rolled up jeans spotted. Eight years later, the brand re-thought about the skins.
I then went to the Dr brand. Martens, who in 2014 was dedicated to the skinheads of the first wave of a whole collection of Spirit of 69. In support of the leader of the band the Streets, Mike Skinner made a documentary short film about the skinheads of the 1960s. “the Skins of those years were tough guys, sure. But their anger was caused by the aggression of the external world, and not adherence to the ideals of Nazism. A kind of defense mechanism, nothing more”, — he explained his vision of the subculture.
the Gradual penetration of skinheads on the podium continues. DSquared spring collection 2017 was inspired by the subcultures of the 1970s. Along with shoes on platform style David Bowie and trousers in a cage, she was full of solutions out of the closet skinhead, what DSquared did not hesitate to confess. Bombers, thin suspenders, khaki pants, collared shirts button down and of course jeans tucked. The reaction of the public was strictly positive.
Their collections spring/summer 2018 has been devoted to this subculture English brands JORDANLUCA and Matthew Miller. And last, and all dressed up in the clothes of skinheads black models. From a historical point of view, nothing wrong with that, but outside the UK all skinheads are still often considered racist. This fact does not give the fashion of skinheads eventually become mainstream.
In the United States with their many racial issues already raised a wave of protest against the legalization of the fashion of the skinheads, and the word “skinhead” is still almost abusive. In Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union skinheads appeared only in the 1990-ies and were exclusively right-wing nationalists, so in polite society in typical skins clothing is better not to appear. However, nationalist skinheads created a dress code, the peculiarities of which we will explain next week.