each era has its own heroes, and along with their dandies and style icons. “Ribbon.ru” talks about how in the past looked like, what he did and what they dressed successful man. In the first material of the series we will focus on the beginning of the XX century — in Britain it is a time when originated many of the modern trends in men’s wear, called the Edwardian era.
In 1901, the year Queen Victoria died, who ruled the British Empire for a long 64 years. In the most powerful country on Earth, followed — and around the world ended the Victorian era. In the reign of Edward VII, whose fate is surprisingly similar to the current heir to the British throne, Prince Charles. Due to the longevity of Victoria Teddy (the so-called future king in the family) was expecting his accession to the throne longer than anyone of the heirs in history — a record held until 9 September 2017, when it finally broke, Prince Charles (and his mother, Elizabeth II, to this day!)
However, in the long wait to the throne with all due responsibilities for Teddy was and advantage, Edward was able to devote almost all their time in various amusements. Travel, parties, gambling and indispensable amorous adventures was for the heir to the commonplace. Despite the fact that at the time of the coronation of Edward was a little over sixty, his reign was the result of an equally cheerful, as the years of free citizenship from their mother.
Edward VII died in 1910, but his name Edwardian era often extends until 1914 when the First world put an end to well-fed and carefree life. In the history of this time remained nearly the best years of the XX century. The economy of the major powers has grown rapidly. Wars (with the exception of a few local conflicts like the Russo-Japanese war), and technological progress has made life affluent members of society, all the more convenient and comfortable.
But at the same time, the world was rapidly changing: the struggle of workers for improvement of working conditions, the struggle of women for equality, technological revolution every year and a growing importance of the United States in the global economy. The old world of the nineteenth century left in the past, and his place was taken by a new, much more familiar to us now in order. It is therefore unsurprising that a successful man “sample” 1900-1910’s so similar to the modern master of life. Athletic and stylishly dressed, the inventor or build from scratch your Empire philanthropist is not Tony stark, the hero of more than a century ago.
In the beginning of the century the Land was divided between several colonial countries: a quarter of the planet belonged to the British Empire, the fifth part of the Russian Empire, one twelfth of the French Republic, and the remainder was divided between the Germans, the Portuguese, the Belgians and the Turks. Richest people of the world were mostly representatives of the aristocracy.
for Example, the state of the richest Russian landowner, Emperor Nicholas II Romanov, on the modern Forbes does not even reach a billion current dollars (it was about 720 million). In many rankings (e.g. the English Wikipedia) the richest man of the era, and along the whole history of mankind is called Nicholas II. Allegedly, he owned 250 to $ 300 billion. In reality, a large part of the property (all of its lands and palaces, for example) were on balance of the Ministry of the Imperial court, and the revenues went to the content of the latter.
Personal same as Nicholas II and his family were not the biggest in the Empire. However, the Emperor lived in a big way. Two palaces in Saint Petersburg and the surrounding area, three in the Crimea, the world’s largest yacht “Standart”, even more luxurious — though more compact and slow — yacht “polar star”, 56 cars at the Imperial garage. Many treasures, the most famous of which were the Easter eggs of Faberge. Only Nicholas II commissioned famed jeweler 44 eggs, one mother and his wife every Easter.
Over the ocean in the absence of nobility, the richest people were entrepreneurs. At the end of the XIX century for the first place in the list of the rich fought by the oil magnate John Davison Rockefeller and Stalepromyshlennaja Andrew Carnegie. The greater part of his life, Rockefeller was richer than the competitor, but the fate of both millionaires (and Rockefeller in 1916 and became the first ever dollar billionaire) has developed the same scenario.
Both came out of the bottom, both built their business Empire from scratch, both retired only in extreme old age, both were engaged in philanthropy on an unprecedented scale, both in a life lived rather modestly. If Carnegie though would have bought a castle in his native Scotland, Rockefeller was satisfied with several villas in the US are not record size.
Generally the first billionaire in history became famous not only power your company (at its peak standard Oil controlled 95 percent of oil production USA) and private wealth, but also austerity. For example, his wife, nee Laura Spelman, personally I mended and altered old dresses, and children from an early age was accustomed to manual labor. Money never played for John a determining role. Maybe that’s why he became the best in their making: “I’ve never seen nothing more despicable than people who make money for money. You need to have a more global goals and dreams.”
the Only thing that Rockefeller spent money obsessively — charity. Being a devout Christian Baptist, John annually gave 10 percent of their income — a traditional “tithe” of the Church. Moving away in 1897 from business, Rockefeller devoted all his time to philanthropy. He created the University of Chicago, University of Rockefeller in Manhattan, Central University of the Philippines, sponsored by all the ivy League universities (including Harvard and Yale), personally helped talented students, funded medical research. Founded in 1917, the Rockefeller Foundation will become the largest American charitable organization.
“My job is to make money, more money, but to invest in good business for the benefit of my fellow man. So tells me conscience,” — commented on his unprecedented philanthropy billionaire.
As history has shown, the place for people like Nicholas II in the postwar world. The first world ended not only Russian, but also of the Ottoman, German and Austro-Hungarian empires, the era of the power of the aristocracy was ended. And John D. Rockefeller lived for 97 years and died peacefully in his bed in 1937. Inherited children he left a third of his fortune — property worth about $ 500 million (adjusted for inflation would be about 30 billion). The rest went to charity.
ever since the industrial revolution at the turn of XVIII and XIX centuries changed the world in the list of the richest people of different countries always appear the Industrialists and financiers. Was no exception and the beginning of the XX century. But the rapid development of technical progress at the turn of the nineteenth and last centuries was placed in the center of attention of inventors.
cars and trucks, airplane, motorbike, Assembly line, telephone, Telegraph, film, radio and telecommunication, motors, and many other inventions of that period not only changed the world, but did Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler, Henry Ford, Alexander Graham bell, the Wright brothers, Thomas Edison, Nikola Tesla and other inventors very rich. The Wright brothers only for the patent of his plane received 100 thousand dollars ($2.5 million in today’s money). The state of Thomas Edison is estimated at $ 12 million (now about 170 million), and the condition of Henry Ford to the early 1920s, close to a billion dollars by today’s account.
But it is not only in money, but in glory. The inventors of the turn of the century, became honorary members of the academies of Sciences of different countries, received awards and cash prizes, in the papers discussed their new ideas and inventions. They even got invited to high society parties. Part of the interest in the inventors of the last century reminiscent of the attention the audience pays wealthy Internet entrepreneurs and successful startups.
the Term “sex symbol” at the beginning of XX century in fact did not exist. The film industry took its first tentative steps, and it was a movie before the advent of television was the main and almost the only opportunity for women to admire beautiful men in the world. The first recognized sex-symbol of the United States, along with America and the entire civilized world became a film actor Rudolph Valentino. However, his star was lit after the First world war.
In its infancy and was a professional sport, the heroes of which in the future will also become the favorites of women. A sample of male beauty of the early XX century, from which the girls sighed and swooned Housewives, was Eugene Sandow, known in the English speaking world like Eugene Sandow: the legendary strongman, who is unofficially considered to be the founder of bodybuilding and the first popularizer of the sport and a healthy lifestyle.
the Real name of the athlete — Friedrich Wilhelm Mueller. He was born in 1867 in a family of German Jewish converts to Christianity in the Prussian Koenigsberg (now Kaliningrad). The mother of Hercules was a native of the Russian Empire. The mysterious charm of the maternal homeland has pushed the young Frederick to take his Russian nickname, which, however, in the future had to be redone in the English manner — the main arenas for performances müller-Sandow-Sandow became the British Empire and the United States.
a future Career as a sex symbol began in 1885, when he fled to Belgium to Dodge military service. In Brussels, Muller got to the gym Ludwig Durlacher strongman retired, who saw in the young boy’s remarkable potential and has helped Friedrich Muller to become the Eugene Sandoval, who then learned world.
In 1889 a young athlete with Shine have won in the competition of athletes and has become a real star. Not the last role played in this movie. Sandow quickly realized that a lot cheaper, more comfortable and more effective to act in several mini-films, demonstrating his physical strength and athleticism than to travel the world on tour. But the notorious “Sanchez”, of course, has not been canceled — in 1894-1895 Sandow toured Europe and the United States, but it is the cinematography has allowed his fame to cross the border long before the arrival of the strong man.
1900-1910 years — the peak of the popularity of Eugene. It produces a monthly magazine Physical Culture, arranges the first ever bodybuilding competitions in the British Royal albert hall (where one of the members of the jury at the time was the Arthur Conan Doyle), publishes books, and in 1911 became the personal fitness trainer of king George V. a Healthy lifestyle, which is now the most trending among successful people, had to Sandow almost sacred significance: “Health is a divine gift, and take care of your body is a sacred duty, the rejection of which is a sin.”
Sandow has devoted himself to the development of new trainings, training young athletes and the promotion of bodybuilding until his death: he died in 1925 from a brain hemorrhage (unfortunately, stroke is a frequent cause of premature death of body builders). But by this time the fair sex is already very different characters. Next time pumped athletes will once again become the favorites of women only in the 1980s.
Though the world at the turn of the century and changed with unprecedented speed, but a style icon in the late nineteenth century was the heir to the throne, and subsequently king Edward VII. Many of the innovations of the monarch is still alive. For example, it was he who, when he was Prince of Wales, came up with to wear trousers and tuck Trouser legs, and made a fashionable unimportant hitherto Norfolk suits, Homburg hats and tweed suits. The Norfolk jacket and tweed wool, from which it is made, great for hunting — it was one of the favorite leisure activities of the future king.
Such clothing is so loved Edward that he regularly wore a Norfolk jacket for walks and even chastised dressed not in the stated fashion companions. “I thought everyone knows that during private walks in the morning, a short jacket worn with a silk hat!” — once laid siege to it by sir Frederick Ponsonby, who decided to make the Prince’s company for a walk in a long coat.
Hat the Homburg became popular with the happy occasion. The future king was seen a headdress of this style in 1882 in bad Homburg for his nephew, the German Kaiser Wilhelm II. Lightweight and low felt hat with turned up brim is perfect for all those hunting and was a great alternative to the classic English hunting cap. After returning from Germany, Prince began regularly wearing hamburgi that instantly made them the latest trend. It’s amazing that your favorite hat Eduard found in the country, which he disliked: “You can understand when you crossed the border of Germany, by the way, how bad is getting coffee.”
Funny, but in honor of Edward did not name any tweed or Homburg. A well-known pattern woolen fabric “Prince of Wales” is named for the grandson of Teddy Edward VIII, who briefly ruled England in the 1930-ies and abdicated for marrying a divorced American Wallis Simpson. Well, the hat, the Homburg is known in the British Isles, like a hat Eden by name wore this style of member of the government from 1935 to 1955 and Prime Minister of great Britain in the years 1955-57 Anthony Eden.
Trends that prevailed in mens fashion in 1900-e years, was a continuation of the trends of the last decades of the XIX century. Men still had his hair cut short, wore short beards and mustaches (except that began to curl the tips of the latter). The main hat was a bowler hat, shirt with stiff stand-up collars, and the classic three-piece suit was gradually forced out of the closet old-fashioned frock coat. Formal evening events dictated a strict and uncontested dress code: tailcoat, pants and hat. In more democratic States, at a gala dinner at home or at a men’s club you could wear a tuxedo but in conservative Britain it was unacceptable.
it is likely that the liberal Edwardian fashion eventually moved to transatlantic habits and prudish England, if not fateful shots in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914, which served as the pretext for the start of the worst at the time of the massacre in the history of mankind. For five years the world was not to fashion, sex symbols and beautiful life — the war was raging in Europe, Asia and Africa. The Edwardian era also remained in the memory of a kind of “Golden age” of the last decade of the old world, which is so nice for nostalgia, sitting by the fireplace.