“the Tape.ru” continues his journey across eras. In the last article we told about successful men during the great depression. Today will talk about the first post-war decade — the era of the baby boom, prosperous time, which gave the world the chief of a rebel generation.
either before or after the world has not seen conflict worse and bigger than the Second world war. Europe lay in ruins, the Soviet Union lost at least 12 percent of its population, the British Empire was unraveling, Germany and ceased to exist as a unified state. But exhausted by war and the preceding economic crisis more than ever people were filled with the desire to live.
For the first 15 years after the war the Western economies grew rapidly, the population grew rich, especially in unaffected by the US war. It was during these years have developed the proverbial “American dream”: well-groomed wife, small children, car is the latest model home with all the creature comforts work in a large company. On the background of this ideal of capitalism began to rise wave of youth rebellion. Not everyone would have the same look and the same to live.
Another feature of the era — a large number of ex-military in the civilian sector. In the armed forces, visited by tens of millions of men on both sides of the front, so there is nothing surprising in the fact that the first role after the war was ex-military. And it’s not just those who passed the war as a private, and professional soldiers. In the United States and France came to power, and generals. And Dwight D. Eisenhower and Charles de Gaulle won a democratic election. Enough and successful Junior officers.
a Captain in the air force Robert McNamara first became Vice-President of Ford Motor Company, and later headed the company, becoming the first person not from the family Ford at its helm. However, captain McNamara led the automaker only five weeks — he called his administration the new President of the United States, a full Lieutenant (analogue of Lieutenant in the armed forces) John Kennedy.
a war Hero, ladies man, style icon, rich and famous, the 35th President of the United States became the living embodiment of success for millions of people around the world. His murder in 1963 has become the definitive end of an era. In 1965 the United States entered the war in Vietnam, causing a wave of protests. In full force fighting for their civil rights will lead African Americans, and young people will seize the hippie culture. But pockets of protest began to arise already in the 1950-ies. It was at this time arose the first subcultures: the beatniks in the United States and Teddy boys in the UK, and the image of the young rebel’s first heroes. A true symbol of the generation was James Dean.
of Course, Dean was not the only rebel who came to fame. The planetary popularity acquired Marlon Brando, Paul Newman and Elvis Presley but the main sex symbol of the era was precisely James. Died at the age of 24 years, the actor is mentioned hundreds of times in songs of very different musicians from the Eagles, and Joe Dassin Hillary Duff and Lana del Rey, it is written many books and filmed dozens of films and documentaries, and readers of the magazine the Gay Times even chose him as the greatest gay icon male. The latter is especially surprising, since homosexuality has not been proven Dean, and he was at best bisexual. The reason for such popularity?
Clearly not in his heritage — to his death, the actor managed to play in only eight films, of which only three roles were major. Dean was one of the first heroes of television — he starred in some episodes of series 23. In addition, James played five performances, three of which were on Broadway. But still it doesn’t compare with the legacy of the big actors of the era like Kirk Douglas, Gregory peck, or the same in Newman and Brando. Dean had become something more than another Hollywood star. He became the first hero of youth protest, and the film “rebel without a cause” — a Manifesto of protest.
Dean was different from all the other actors before him, and their appearance and their behavior. Nobody, with the possible exception of Marlon Brando, not made to promote t-shirts and leather jackets as much as Dean. A typical image of James — white shirt, worn over her black or brown jacket and jeans. The latter, incidentally, the actor was one of the first tuck. In the USA two-inch lapel jeans even got the name “James Dean”, and Levi’s and American Apparel are still releasing models that were worn by the actor.
Dean was one of the first to wear sunglasses as a style element. The growth of their popularity began after 1936, appeared glasses with polarized lenses. A year later, the US has sold 20 million sunglasses, but the majority of their buyers were women. James also introduced them to the men’s wardrobe. More official image of the actor created with the help of various sweaters, which he combined with a t-shirt and shirt. Latest Dean combined with the sweaters with V-neck. As to the shoes, then he re-introduced the daily life of the highly specialized things: leather boots and shoes.
To Dean’s jeans and boots were considered by the working clothes in which in society could occur only in the cowboys. T-shirts are not accepted to wear a shirt on top, and Polo and sneakers not worn outside of the country club. Separate conversation is deserved hairstyle James — famous quiff with the slicked back high bangs. It does not notice the unusually-dressed actor was impossible. Earned his first starring role in the film “East of Eden” money James bought a Triumph Tiger T110 motorcycle and sports car the Porsche 356, which with a snarl and drove to California.
the Subject for a separate discussion — sexual orientation of the actor. “No, I’m not gay. But I’m not going to go through life with one arm bound behind the back”, — commented on their preference Dean. Most of his biographers agree that sexual relations with people of the same gender wore or experimental nature, or was required to advance her acting career. However, the actor fully recognized as a sex symbol by both women and men. And not just gay.
Completes the image of the rebellious young men craze James Motorsport and death in accidents. That the Porsche 356, which the actor drove on public roads was used in the race. And Dean immediately showed good ability, regularly getting into the top three overall and winning its class. Breaks in the race was due entirely to the filming of “Rebel without a cause” and “Giant.” But in 1955, the actor acquired the “evil” model in the range Porsche 550 A Spyder, nicknamed Little bastard (Little bastard…). It’s something Dean and crashed 30 September 1955 on the way to the next event in Salinas, 480 miles from Los Angeles.
the news of the death of the idol of young people instantly spread around the country. The funeral let 600 people in but 2 400 came and waited in front of the Church. Dina was buried in a closed coffin so no one saw what happened to his handsome face. James remained forever young and beautiful rebel. The way Dina had a tremendous influence on young people on both sides of the Atlantic.
“Without James Dean would not have been The Beatles!” with this loud statement could not agree if the author would not be John Lennon. “I heard what I call the “new James Dean”, but I will never agree with this comparison. Because he was a genius” — this is Elvis Presley. “Marlon Brando changed the way people played in the movie. James Dean changed the way they lived,” explained Dean for the value of the US actor Martin sheen.
If James Dean was a harbinger of a new era, the richest man in the 50’s like in the future from the past. In the XX century humanity has entered with one of the most charismatic and comical at the same time rich in history, the oil magnate John Rockefeller. The first billionaire in the history of desperate save on his own life and all restricted their relatives. Half a century later, history is exactly repeated. In 1957 Fortune magazine named the richest American Jean Paul Getty — oil tycoon and miser.
the Getty was born into a wealthy family of oil magnate in 1892 and at the age of 22 he received from his father 10 thousand dollars for investment in the oil industry. A year later, the young Jean Paul became a millionaire. In 1930 his father died, leaving a legacy of a third oil company Getty Oil Inc. However, of the 10 million the as it got only 500 thousand dollars — father Jean Paul was very upset with a failed personal life of the heir. Only in 1920-e years he was three times married and twice divorced. All in all, Getty had five wives, who gave him five children.
But a failed personal life does not interfere with business success oilman. After the war, Getty became a member of the oil concessions in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. During the 1950-ies they made him a billionaire and the richest man in the world. Gaining worldwide recognition, Jean Paul decided to move to England, where he once studied at Oxford. Despite its plebeian by the standards of British Empire origin, he’s still in his youth, he was admitted to the circle of aristocrats and the richest man in the world, and was a welcome guest in the best houses of London. That’s just to the Getty in his magnificent Palace of the XVI century Sutton place in Surrey no one came. The reason — in one of the most disastrous party in history, which the billionaire was organized soon after his arrival in England.
the Host of the evening forbade the guests to smoke outside and use the toilets. To celebrate natural need of the public were asked in your closet in the garden. In addition, the Sutton place was clearly not designed for such an influx of people. Not knowing about the features of the character, the Getty, the British gladly rushed to the party, so that the number of guests far exceeded the original 1 200.
damage to the Palace from the party were estimated at 20 thousand pounds (about 453 thousand dollars at the rate of 2018). Guests stole numerous items of silverware of the eighteenth century. The next morning about the failure of the party wrote to all the London press. The most amazing thing that shamed the guests began to return the stolen goods. More major parties in Sutton place was not.
the Subject of many jokes became thrift Getty. A billionaire himself, washed his clothes, because they believed that paying for it is silly. Almost all phones in Sutton place was equipped with coin-operated and worked on the principle of machines. Jean Paul was outraged that guests and business partners to freely use the phone and make long distance and international calls, which led to a marked increase in phone bills. Even the Sutton place Getty bought for the sake of saving! To live outside the city in a private Palace turned out to be much cheaper than a Suite in the London Ritz.
in Addition to working at the Getty had two passions: collecting art and sex. Latest Jean Paul loved so much that for the sake of potency began to use an experimental drug H3. As to the collection after herself, left three Getty Museum and J. Paul Getty Trust is the richest Foundation in the world of art. Huge budget of the Fund allows it to this day to be one of the top buyers at auctions in London and new York. But to save Sutton place in family hands Getty failed. The owner of the Palace since 2005, is Russian billionaire Alisher Usmanov.
Getty remained the richest person in the United States and one of the richest in the world until his death in 1976. And all these years you couldn’t call him a style icon. Jean Paul was dressed very conservatively: double-breasted blazers, three-piece suits, black and brown boots, long coat. Well at least finally out of use the cylinder was not wearing! Accented by the flashy in General was typical of the era. During the witch hunts of Senator McCarthy and the fear of “red menace” to stand out from the crowd was not accepted.
1950-ies can be considered the time of birth grey office suit. Max bling that could afford a solid men — double-breasted jacket in plaid. A style icon for most Americans, and a respectable part of the Europeans was Frank Sinatra — “a man who better than anyone who wore the suit”. The maximum of freedom which could afford Frank shifted on the back of the hat, which in the 1950s was still a mandatory attribute of a respectable man.
the Rebellious youth of the time copied the style of James Dean and Marlon Brando. But the most radical young people went even further and created its own subculture. In the US they were the beatniks who protested against the consumer society. Accordingly, in appearance, the main goal was to distance themselves from the fashion world.
Closet of a hipster is anti-fashion. In fashion bright colors? So beatniks choose total-black. Straight black pants, black sweaters with turtle neck and beret, gave them a French look. Equally important was to show that you care about appearance. Negligence of an image is often achieved hair, a thick beard and mustache that in the 50s already out of fashion.
However, we are much closer to Teddy boys, from which, as believed, took the example of the Soviet hipsters. Narrow drainpipe trousers, frock coat with double collar, bow tie, vests, shirts with stripes — unlike the beatniks, Teddy boys was emphasized bright guys. They are in their own way redefined the neo-Edwardian style that has spread among the rich English youth.
went further Soviet hipsters, the color of clothing which was brighter and bolder the clothing itself. However, all these counter-culture was only a slight breeze in the background lifted the hurricane 60’s, But about it next time.